Unfall Road Accidents Essay

This has been revealed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in its first ever Global Status Report on Road Safety. The report pointed to speeding, drunk driving and low use of helmets, seat belts and child restraints in vehicles as the main contributing factors.

Every hour, 40 people under the age of 25 die in road accidents around the globe. According to the WHO, this is the second most important cause of death for 5 to 29 year olds.

A bus fell from a bridge into a dry riverbed in northwestern India last month, killing at least 26 students and teachers on board

In India alone, the death toll rose to 14 per hour in 2009 as opposed to 13 the previous year. The total number of deaths every year due to road accidents has now passed the 135,000 mark, according to the latest report of National Crime Records Bureau or NCRB.

While trucks and two-wheelers were responsible for over 40 per cent of deaths, peak traffic during the afternoon and evening rush hours is the most dangerous time to be on the roads.

Drunken driving is a major factor

The NCRB report further states that drunken driving was a major factor for road accidents. Joint Commissioner of Police Maxwell Perreira maintains that there has to be a change in drivers' mindsets.

Trucks are responsible for many road accidents in India

"Most of the city accidents are not necessarily out of drunken driving," says Pereira. "But 99 per cent of the accidents, the fatal accidents that occur outside the cities are due to drunken driving and there is no check on this kind of drunken driving. Unfortunately, truck drivers think they are fully armed to drive on the highway when they are fully drunk! Until and unless this country comes up with a new method of checking drunkenness on the highways, I don't think these fatalities can be lessened."

Inefficient law enforcement

Prince Singhal, founder of the Campaign Against Drunken Driving (CADD), a decade-old movement with support across the country, says the increase in fatal accidents only proves the lack of concern on the part of state governments and police towards the problem of drunken driving.

"It's growing day by day because liquor is a state subject and its happening everywhere in the country, not just Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad and metro towns. There is an ineffective law, there is no judicial procedure, there is no enforcement by the police, no specific segment where they can book people under drunk driving."

India is experiencing a car boom

Campaigns against drunken driving have not proved effective. And the increasing number of prosecutions for drunken driving has also not been a deterrent. But Singhal is determined to change this.

"Now things are going to change because we met government representatives and we filed a white paper policy on road safety. So there is going to be national council which is going to be formed very soon in the country. The matter is in parliament and it is already approved by the cabinet. And very soon you will see a specific body on road safety is going to be formed."

The time for action is now: Road deaths increased by nearly 40 per cent between 2003 and 2008 in India, and the more progressive and developed states like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu are the ones most affected.

Road safety experts also warn that the real numbers of fatalities could be much higher since many cases are not even reported. There is no estimate as to how many people injured in road accidents die a few hours or days after the accident. And their deaths are then no longer linked to road traffic accidents.

Author: Murali Krishnan (New Delhi)
Editor: Grahame Lucas

For other uses, see Accident (disambiguation).

"Misadventure" redirects here. For other uses, see Misadventure (disambiguation).

An accident, also known as an unintentional injury, is an undesirable, incidental, and unplanned event that could have been prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its occurrence. Most scientists who study unintentional injury avoid using the term "accident" and focus on factors that increase risk of severe injury and that reduce injury incidence and severity.[1]

Types[edit]

Physical and non-physical[edit]

Physical examples of accidents include unintended motor vehicle collisions or falls, being injured by touching something sharp, hot, moving objects, contacting electricity or ingesting poison. Non-physical examples are unintentionally revealing a secret or otherwise saying something incorrectly, accidental deletion of data, forgetting an appointment etc.

By activity[edit]

  • Accidents during the execution of work or arising out of it are called work accidents. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), more than 337 million accidents happen on the job each year, resulting, together with occupational diseases, in more than 2.3 million deaths annually.[2]
  • In contrast, leisure-related accidents are mainly sports injuries.

By vehicle[edit]

Common causes[edit]

See also: Preventable causes of death

Poisons, vehicle collisions and falls are the most common causes of fatal injuries. According to a 2005 survey of injuries sustained at home, which used data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States National Center for Health Statistics, falls, poisoning, and fire/burn injuries are the most common causes of death.[3]

The United States also collects statistically valid injury data (sampled from 100 hospitals) through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System administered by the Consumer Product Safety Commission.[4] This program was revised in 2000 to include all injuries rather than just injuries involving products.[4] Data on emergency room visits is also collected through the National Health Interview Survey.[5] In The U.S. the Bureau of Labor Statistics has available on their website extensive statistics on workplace accidents.[6]

Accident models[edit]

Many models to characterize and analyze accidents have been proposed,[7] which can by classified by type. Notable types and models include:[8]

  • Sequential models
    • Domino Theory[9]
    • Loss Causation Model[10]
  • Complex linear models
    • Energy Damage Model[11]
    • Time sequence models
      • Generalized Time Sequence Model[12]
      • Accident Evolution and Barrier Function[13]
    • Epidemiological models
      • Gordon 1949
      • Onward Mappings Model based on Resident Pathogens Metaphor[14]
  • Process model
  • Systemic models
  • Non-linear models
    • System accident[15]
    • Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Process (STAMP)[16]
    • Functional Resonance Accident Model (FRAM) [17]
    • Assertions that all existing models are insufficient[18]

Ishikawa diagrams are sometimes used to illustrate root-cause analysis and five whys discussions.

See also[edit]

General[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Other specific topics[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Accident
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Accidents.
Unintentional injury deaths per million persons in 2012

  107-247

  248-287

  288-338

  339-387

  388-436

  437-505

  506-574

  575-655

  656-834

  835-1,165

Incidence of accidents (of a severity of resulting in seeking medical care), sorted by activity (in Denmark in 2002).
  1. ^Robertson, Leon S. (2015). Injury Epidemiology: Fourth Edition. Lulu Books. 
  2. ^"ILO Safety and Health at Work". International Labour Organization (ILO)
  3. ^Runyan CW, Casteel C, Perkis D, et al. (January 2005). "Unintentional injuries in the home in the United States Part I: mortality". Am J Prev Med. 28 (1): 73–9. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.09.010. PMID 15626560. 
  4. ^ abCPSC. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Database query available through: NEISS Injury Data.
  5. ^NCHS. Emergency Department Visits. CDC.
  6. ^http://www.bls.gov/iif
  7. ^A long list of books and papers is given in: Taylor, G.A.; Easter, K.M.; Hegney, R.P. (2004). Enhancing Occupational Safety and Health. Elsevier. pp. 241–245, see also pages 140–141 and pages 147–153, also on Kindle. ISBN 0750661976. 
  8. ^Yvonne Toft; Geoff Dell; Karen K Klockner; Allison Hutton (April 2012). "Models of Causation: Safety". In HaSPA (Health and Safety Professionals Alliance). OHS Body of Knowledge(PDF). Safety Institute of Australia Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9808743-1-0. 
  9. ^H.W. Heinreich (1931). Industrial Accident Prevention. McGraw-Hill. 
  10. ^Bird and Germain, 1985
  11. ^Gibson, Haddon, Viner
  12. ^Viner
  13. ^Svenson
  14. ^Reason, James T. (1991). "Too Little and Too Late: A Commentary on Accident and Incident Reporting". In Van Der Schaaf, T.W.; Lucas, D.A.; Hale, A.R. Near Miss Reporting as a Safety Tool. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 9–26. 
  15. ^Perrow, 1984
  16. ^Leveson 2004
  17. ^Hollnagel, 2004
  18. ^Dekker 2011

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