June 27, 1993Our Man In Zurich
By JULIAN SYMONS
THE NIGHT MANAGER
By John le Carré.
ew things are staler than a spy story with last week's background. John le Carré, when planning his new book, had to devise a strategy for writing about a society in which, as one of his characters reflects, there is "no more Russian bear to fight, no more Reds under the bed at home." Now that the Soviet Union has ceased to exist, and Mr. le Carré's superspy Karla with it, what can replace them? The writer's answer is to blend international arms dealers and the bosses of drug cartels into a single individual, make him a lazy-voiced, arrogant, stylish Englishman named Richard Onslow Roper, and give him the persuasiveness of Mephistopheles. The result is a brilliant performance, executed with an exuberance, a richness of detail and a narrative drive that have been absent from Mr. le Carré's writing for a decade.
The Persian Gulf war, with its immense possibilities for arms dealing, is the background of "The Night Manager," but at the heart of the story is Roper, reinforced by his entourage and his arguments in defense of his activities. Does he help to establish dictatorships? "Armed power's what keeps the peace," he replies, while "unarmed power doesn't last five minutes." Is the responsibility for death and starvation in Africa and South America to be laid at his door? Not so. "Who are the killers, then?" he asks. "It's not the chaps who make the guns! It's the chaps who don't open the larder doors!"
Swept along in Roper's wake, as he moves around by plane and helicopter from luxury yacht to luxury hotel to his fantasy palace made real in the Caribbean, is a sleazy and sinister group of acolytes headed by the extravagantly homosexual and deadly clever Major Corkoran. Opposed to Roper is Jonathan Pine, first encountered as night manager of Zurich's Hotel Meister Palace, but with a past that includes undercover work in Northern Ireland. Pine is backed by one of those underfinanced oddball secret agencies met in other le Carré books. This one is run by the well-named Leonard Burr from dingy offices in London's Victoria Street and supported by a Whitehall mandarin named Rex Goodhew, whose puritan conscience makes him implacably opposed to Roper, whom he sees as the embodiment of all drug-dealing and arms-selling evil. A bigger British agency devoted to "Pure Intelligence" (which means gathering information, but most often refraining from using it for fear of disturbing the status quo) cooperates with the "American Cousins" in keeping a watchful eye on Burr.
Pine's character is built up with great care. The opening 50 pages, which show him as a super-flunky at the Zurich hotel, disturbed by Roper and overwhelmed by the beauty of Roper's English mistress, Jed, are written with a deliberate panache designed both to emphasize Roper's high style and to show us that Pine is in retreat from tragedy and violence in his own life. He had tried to protect the mistress of an Arab colleague of Roper's, but she was quite casually killed. In the Mei ster Palace, Pine is really hiding from himself and the effect of his own actions. Locked one day by accident in the hotel's wine cellar with no prospect of being found, he decides that if he is saved he will "abandon his morbid quest for order and treat himself to a little chaos."
Pine is enlisted by Burr, given a new identity and a background of drug-running and apparent murder. Burr then arranges a mock kidnapping of Roper's son, Daniel, from which Pine is to save the boy. In the event, Pine, seeing the frightened child, loses his cool and breaks the arm of one of Burr's agents. He is then badly beaten by another, and becomes the temporary favorite of a grateful Roper.
This is Operation Limpet. Pine is to be the limpet bomb that will cling to and finally destroy Roper.
Put down so simply, such plotting may sound like the ordinary material of an espionage adventure. That is not at all the effect. For an outline inevitably ignores brilliant set pieces, like the arrival of Roper's party at Hunter's Island in the Caribbean, before the failed kidnapping. There the gigantic Mama Low is preparing a meal for the party; Pine, renamed Lamont and hired as a cook, is preparing his famous stuffed mussels. Nor can it convey the subtleties of Pine's interrogations by the suspicious Major Corkoran when Pine is recuperating after the beating that was not in the script.
Nor can any plot outline take in the long description of what is justly seen as a madhouse in the Panama jungle, where weapons are demonstrated in the presence of potential buyers and Roper's friends and agents are gathered, Frenchmen and Germans and an Israeli, men who have "fought every dirty war from Cuba to Salvador to Guatemala to Nicaragua." The story is built up with the relentless simplicity of Victorian narrative, but it is elaborated and enriched with what are often terrifying gargoyles.
Roper and his crew are not the only villains. Mr. le Carré's distaste for the intelligence agency game and its most enthusiastic practitioners has never been shown more clearly than in his depiction of the Pure Intelligence outfit in London and its counterparts in Washington. Both groups are chiefly concerned with discomfiting and outwitting rivals, and are ready to dispose of their own agents when they pose awkward questions.
One scene shows the master manipulator Goodhew threatened with ruin or death by a committee man he has always thought an amiable cipher, unless Goodhew abandons support for Operation Limpet. Meanwhile, across the Atlantic, Deputy Assistant Attorney General Ed Prescott breaks the news to Joe Strelski, an American drug-enforcement agent who is another Limpet supporter, that Pine must be left to his fate, abandoned in Roper's hands. This scene is written with a controlled savagery rare in Mr. le Carré's work. Isn't Roper inextricably linked with dope-running and illegal arms sales, Strelski asks? Prescott smiles ruefully as he says that can't be proved, and Strelski responds with heavyweight irony: "Don't change, Ed. America needs you as you are. . . . Keep fixing things for us. The decent citizen knows too much already, Ed. Any more knowledge could seriously endanger his health."
Mr. le Carré is a finely ambitious writer, concerned with producing stories that can be considered on the same plane as Conrad's "Under Western Eyes" or the best of Graham Greene and Robert Louis Stevenson. His finest books, "The Spy Who Came In From the Cold" and "The Little Drummer Girl," show that in the architectonics of writing -- the construction, shaping and pacing of a plot -- he has no superiors and few equals among living novelists. The framework of "Spy" could serve as a model for any novelist concerned with old-fashioned matters like a closely plotted narrative, although it is true that in some of Mr. le Carré's other books Conradian complexity too often obscures the story line.
Is "The Night Manager" up to the best of John le Carré? The equivocal answer has to be: yes, but only where it concerns the worlds of Roper and the London and Washington agencies. Their activities are handled with total assurance and an evident and infectious enjoyment. Elsewhere, however, Mr. le Carré sometimes surrenders to the inescapably sensational nature of the espionage thriller, and also to a romanticism about women that leads to the creation of a pipe-dream fantasy rather than a character in Jed, Roper's mistress.
But the saddest aspect of "The Night Manager" is the surrender to conventional thrillerdom of the upbeat ending, tacked on to a book that cries out for a tragic one. Perhaps Mr. le Carré bent before his publisher's demand for a hero who might beat enormous odds; perhaps the artistic miscalculation was his own. Whatever the reason, the result is a highly implausible conclusion, damaging our belief in what for almost all the way has been a splendidly exciting, finely told story. T. S. Eliot said in praise of Wilkie Collins's thrillers that in those Victorian days the best novels were thrilling. A book like this one, masterly in its conception and in most of its execution, confirms that they can still be thrilling today.
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David John Moore Cornwell (born 19 October 1931), better known by the pen nameJohn le Carré (), is a British author of espionage novels. During the 1950s and 1960s, he worked for both the Security Service and the Secret Intelligence Service. His third novel, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1963), became an international best-seller and remains one of his best-known works. Following the success of this novel, he left MI6 to become a full-time author.
In 2011, he was awarded the Goethe Medal.
David Cornwell was born on 19 October 1931 in Poole, Dorset, England. His father was Ronald Thomas Archibald (Ronnie) Cornwell (1906–75), and his mother was Olive (Glassy) Cornwell. He has an older brother, Tony, two years his elder, now a retired advertising executive. His younger half-sister is the actress Charlotte Cornwell. His younger half-brother, Rupert Cornwell, is a former Washington bureau chief for the newspaper The Independent. Cornwell said he did not know his mother, who abandoned him when he was five years old, until their re-acquaintance when he was 21 years old. His father had been jailed for insurance fraud, was an associate of the Kray twins, and was continually in debt. Their father/son relationship was difficult. A biographer reports, "His father, Ronnie, made and lost his fortune a number of times due to elaborate confidence tricks and schemes which landed him in prison on at least one occasion. This was one of the factors that led to le Carré's fascination with secrets."
The scheming con-man character, Rick Pym, Magnus Pym's father in A Perfect Spy, was based on Ronnie. When his father died in 1975, Cornwell paid for a memorial funeral service but did not attend it.
Cornwell's schooling began at St Andrew's Preparatory School, near Pangbourne, Berkshire, and continued at Sherborne School. He proved to be unhappy with the typically harsh English public school régime of the time and disliked his disciplinarian housemaster, Thomas, and so withdrew.
From 1948 to 1949, he studied foreign languages at the University of Bern in Switzerland. In 1950, he joined the Intelligence Corps of the British Army garrisoned in Austria, working as a German language interrogator of people who crossed the Iron Curtain to the West. In 1952, he returned to England to study at Lincoln College, Oxford, where he worked covertly for the British Security Service, MI5, spying on far-left groups for information about possible Soviet agents.
When his father declared bankruptcy in 1954, Cornwell quit Oxford to teach at Millfield Preparatory School; however, a year later he returned to Oxford, and graduated in 1956 with a (First Class Honours) Bachelor of Arts degree. He then taught French and German at Eton College for two years, becoming an MI5 officer in 1958. He ran agents, conducted interrogations, tapped telephone lines and effected break-ins. Encouraged by Lord Clanmorris (who wrote crime novels as "John Bingham"), and whilst being an active MI5 officer, Cornwell began writing his first novel, Call for the Dead (1961). Cornwell has identified Lord Clanmorris as one of two models for George Smiley, the spymaster of the Circus, the other being Vivian H. H. Green. As a schoolboy, Cornwell first met the latter when Green was the Chaplain and Assistant Master at Sherborne School (1942–51). The friendship continued after Green's move to Lincoln College, where he tutored Cornwell.
In 1960, Cornwell transferred to MI6, the foreign-intelligence service, and worked under the cover of Second Secretary at the British Embassy at Bonn; he later was transferred to Hamburg as a political consul. There, he wrote the detective storyA Murder of Quality (1962) and The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1963), as "John le Carré" (le Carré is French for "the square")—a pseudonym required because Foreign Office officers were forbidden to publish in their own names.
In 1964, le Carré left the service to work full-time as a novelist, his intelligence-officer career at an end as the result of the betrayal of British agents' covers to the KGB by Kim Philby, the infamous British double agent (one of the Cambridge Five). Le Carré depicts and analyses Philby as the upper-class traitor, code-named "Gerald" by the KGB, the mole George Smiley hunts in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (1974).
In 1954, Cornwell married Alison Ann Veronica Sharp; they had three sons—Simon, Stephen and Timothy—and divorced in 1971. In 1972, Cornwell married Valérie Jane Eustace, a book editor with Hodder & Stoughton; they have one son, Nicholas, who writes as Nick Harkaway.
Le Carré has lived in St Buryan, Cornwall for more than 40 years; he owns a mile of cliff near Land's End.
In 1998, he was awarded an Honorary Degree (Doctor of Letters) from the University of Bath. In 2012, he was awarded the Degree of Doctor of Letters, honoris causa, by Oxford University.
In 1964, le Carré won the Somerset Maugham Award (established to enable British writers younger than 35 to enrich their writing by spending time abroad).
In 2008, The Times ranked him 22nd on its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945".
In 2011, he won the Goethe Medal, a yearly prize given by the Goethe Institute.
Call for the Dead (1961) and A Murder of Quality (1962), le Carré's first two novels, are mystery fiction, in which George Smiley resolves the riddles of the deaths investigated. In these, his motives are more personal than political. His third novel, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1963), became an international best-seller and remains one of his best-known works. Following the success of this novel, he left MI6 to become a full-time author.
Most of le Carré's novels are spy stories set during the Cold War (1945–91) and feature Circus agents as unheroic political functionaries aware of the moral ambiguity of their work and engaged in psychological more than physical drama. le Carré's books emphasise the fallibility of Western democracy and of the secret services protecting it, often implying the possibility of East-West moral equivalence. Moreover, they experience little of the violence typically encountered in action thrillers and have very little recourse to gadgets. Much of the conflict is internal, rather than external and visible.
A departure from the use of the Cold War as a backdrop in this era is the spy novel The Little Drummer Girl (1983), which is set against the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
A Perfect Spy (1986), which chronicles the boyhood moral education of Magnus Pym and how it leads to his becoming a spy, is the author's most autobiographical espionage novel, reflecting the boy's very close relationship with his con-man father. Biographer Lynndianne Beene describes the novelist's own father, Ronnie Cornwell, as "an epic con man of little education, immense charm, extravagant tastes, but no social values". Le Carré reflected that "writing A Perfect Spy is probably what a very wise shrink would have advised". Le Carré's only non-genre novel, The Naïve and Sentimental Lover (1971), is the story of a man's postmarital existential crisis.
With the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, le Carré's writing shifted to portrayal of the new multilateral world. His first completely post-Cold War novel, The Night Manager (1993), deals with drug and arms smuggling in the murky world of Latin America drug lords, shady Caribbean banking entities, and western officials who look the other way.
As a journalist, le Carré wrote The Unbearable Peace (1991), a nonfiction account of Brigadier Jean-Louis Jeanmaire (1911–92), the Swiss Army officer who spied for the Soviet Union from 1962 until 1975.
In 2009, he donated the short story "The King Who Never Spoke" to the Oxfam "Ox-Tales" project, which included it in the project's Fire volume.
In a TV interview with Jon Snow of Channel 4 News, le Carré remarked on his own writing style that, since the facts that inform his work were widely known, he felt it was his job to put them into a context that made them believable to the reader.[when?]
Credited by his pen name, le Carré appeared as an extra in the 2011 film version of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, among the guests at the Christmas party in several flashback scenes.
Le Carré feuded with Salman Rushdie over The Satanic Verses, stating that "nobody has a God-given right to insult a great religion and be published with impunity".
In January 2003, The Times published le Carré's essay "The United States Has Gone Mad". Le Carré contributed it to a volume of political essays titled Not One More Death (2006). Other contributors include Richard Dawkins, Brian Eno, Michel Faber, Harold Pinter, and Haifa Zangana.
In 2017, le Carré stated: "These stages that Trump is going through in the United States and the stirring of racial hatred ... these are absolutely comparable signs of the rise of fascism and it’s contagious, it’s infectious. Fascism is up and running in Poland and Hungary. There’s an encouragement about."
In February 1999, le Carré was the guest in an episode of BBC Radio 4's Bookclub broadcast with presenter James Naughtie and an audience in Penzance.
In October 2008, a television interview on BBC Four was broadcast, in which Mark Lawson asked him to name a "Best of le Carré" list of books; the novelist answered: The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, The Tailor of Panama and The Constant Gardener.
In September 2010, le Carré was interviewed at his house in Cornwall by the journalist Jon Snow for Channel 4 News. The conversation involved several topics: his writing career generally and processes adopted for writing (specifically about his latest book, Our Kind of Traitor, involving Russia and its current global influences, financial and political); his SIS career, discussing why – both personally and more generally – one did such a job then, as compared to now; and how the earlier fight against communism had now moved to the hugely negative effects of certain aspects of excessive capitalism. During the interview he said that it would be his last UK television interview. While reticent about his exact reasons, those he was willing to cite were that of slight self-loathing (which he considered most people feel), a distaste for showing off (he felt that writing necessarily involved a lot of this anyway) and an unwillingness to breach what he felt was the necessarily solitary nature of the writer's work. He was also wary of wasting writing time and dissipating his talent in social success, having seen this happen to many talented writers, to what he felt was the detriment of their later work.
A week after this appearance, le Carré was interviewed for the TV show Democracy Now! in the United States. He told the interviewer, Amy Goodman, "This is the last book about which I intend to give interviews. That isn't because I'm in any sense retiring. I've found that, actually, I've said everything I really want to say, outside my books. I would just like—I'm in wonderful shape. I'm entering my eightieth year. I just want to devote myself entirely to writing and not to this particular art form of conversation."
The December 2010 Channel 4 broadcast John Le Carre: A Life Unmasked was described as his "most candid" television interview.
In the February 2013 edition of Sunday Morning, at the end of his conversation for CBC's Writers & Company with Eleanor Wachtel, le Carré told her, "You do it better than anyone I know" and that this would be his last interview.
Le Carré was interviewed at the Hay on Wye festival on 26 May 2013. The video of the event is offered for sale by le Carré to raise money to keep Hay Library open.
- Call for the Dead (1961), ISBN 0-143-12257-6
- A Murder of Quality (1962), ISBN 0-141-19637-8
- The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1963), ISBN 0-143-12475-7
- The Looking Glass War (1965), ISBN 0-143-12259-2
- A Small Town in Germany (1968), ISBN 0-143-12260-6
- The Naïve and Sentimental Lover (1971), ISBN 0-143-11975-3
- Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (1974), ISBN 0-143-12093-X
- The Honourable Schoolboy (1977), ISBN 0-143-11973-7
- Smiley's People (1979), ISBN 0-340-99439-8
- The Little Drummer Girl (1983), ISBN 0-143-11974-5
- A Perfect Spy (1986), ISBN 0-143-11976-1
- The Russia House (1989), ISBN 0-743-46466-4
- The Secret Pilgrim (1990), ISBN 0-345-50442-9
- The Night Manager (1993), ISBN 0-345-38576-4
- Our Game (1995), ISBN 0-345-40000-3
- The Tailor of Panama (1996), ISBN 0-345-42043-8
- Single & Single (1999), ISBN 0-743-45806-0
- The Constant Gardener (2001), ISBN 0-743-28720-7
- Absolute Friends (2003), ISBN 0-670-04489-X
- The Mission Song (2006), ISBN 0-340-92199-4
- A Most Wanted Man (2008), ISBN 1-416-59609-7
- Our Kind of Traitor (2010), ISBN 0-143-11972-9
- A Delicate Truth (2013), ISBN 0-143-12531-1
- A Legacy of Spies (2017), ISBN 978-0-735-22511-4
- The Good Soldier (1991), collected in Granta 35: The Unbearable Peace
- The United States Has Gone Mad (2003), collected in Not One More Death (2006), ISBN 1-844-67116-X
- Afterword (2014), an essay on Kim Philby, published in A Spy Among Friends by Ben Macintyre
- The Pigeon Tunnel: Stories from My Life (2016)
- "Dare I Weep, Dare I Mourn?" (1967), in Saturday Evening Post, 28 January 1967.
- "What Ritual is Being Observed Tonight?" (1968), in the Saturday Evening Post, 2 November 1968.
- "The Writer and The Horse" (1968), in The Savile Club Centenary Magazine and later The Argosy (and The Saturday Review under the title A Writer and A Gentleman).
- "The King Who Never Spoke" (2009), in Ox-Tales: Fire, 2 July 2009.
- The Incongruous Spy (1964), containing Call for the Dead and A Murder of Quality
- The Quest for Karla (1982), containing Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, The Honourable Schoolboy and Smiley's People (republished in 1995 as Smiley Versus Karla in the UK; and John Le Carré: Three Complete Novels in the U.S.), ISBN 0-394-52848-4
- The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1965), directed by Martin Ritt, with Richard Burton as the protagonist, Alec Leamas
- The Deadly Affair (1966), an adaptation of Call for the Dead, directed by Sidney Lumet, with James Mason as Charles Dobbs (George Smiley in the novel)
- The Looking Glass War (1969), directed by Frank Pierson, with Anthony Hopkins as Avery, Christopher Jones as Leiser, and Sir Ralph Richardson as LeClerc
- The Little Drummer Girl (1984), directed by George Roy Hill, with Diane Keaton as Charlie
- The Russia House (1990), directed by Fred Schepisi, with Sean Connery as Barley Blair
- The Tailor of Panama (2001), directed by John Boorman, with Pierce Brosnan as Andy Osnard, a disgraced spy, and Geoffrey Rush as the emigre English tailor Harry Pendel
- The Constant Gardener (2005), directed by Fernando Meirelles, with Ralph Fiennes as Justin Quayle, set in the slums in Kibera and Loiyangalani, Kenya; the poverty so affected the film crew that they established the Constant Gardener Trust to provide basic education to those areas (John le Carré is a patron of the charity)
- Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (2011), directed by Tomas Alfredson and starring Gary Oldman as George Smiley
- A Most Wanted Man (2014), directed by Anton Corbijn and starring Philip Seymour Hoffman
- Our Kind of Traitor (2016), directed by Susanna White and starring Ewan McGregor
- The Russia House (1994), BBC Radio 4, featuring Tom Baker as Barley Blair
- The Complete Smiley (2009–2010) BBC Radio 4, an eight-part radio-play series, based on the novels featuring George Smiley, commencing with Call for the Dead, broadcast on 23 May 2009, with Simon Russell Beale as George Smiley, and concluding with The Secret Pilgrim in June 2010
- A Delicate Truth (May 2013), BBC Radio 4's Book at Bedtime, recorded by Damian Lewis
- Abridged excerpts from The Pigeon Tunnel, broadcast as BBC Radio 4's Book of the Week, commencing on 12 September 2016
- Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (1979), BBC seven-part television mini-series, with Alec Guinness as George Smiley
- Smiley's People (1982), BBC television mini-series, with Alec Guinness as George Smiley
- A Perfect Spy (1987), BBC television adaptation directed by Peter Smith, with Peter Egan as Magnus Pym and Ray McAnally as Rick
- A Murder of Quality (1991), Thames Television adaptation directed by Gavin Millar, with Denholm Elliott as George Smiley and Joss Ackland as Terence Fielding
- The Night Manager (2016), a BBC and AMC mini-series, directed by Susanne Bier, with Tom Hiddleston as Jonathan Pine and Hugh Laurie as Richard Onslow Roper
- The BBC announced on 8 November 2017 that The Little Drummer Girl would be their next John Le Carré project and is set to go into production in January 2018. 
In 2010, le Carré donated his literary archive to the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The initial 85 boxes of material deposited included handwritten drafts of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy and The Constant Gardener. The library hosted a public display of these and other items to mark World Book Day in March 2011.
Awards and honours
- 1963, British Crime Writers AssociationGold Dagger for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 1964, Somerset Maugham Award for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 1965, Mystery Writers of AmericaEdgar Award for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 1977, British Crime Writers Association Gold Dagger for The Honourable Schoolboy
- 1977, James Tait Black Memorial Prize Fiction Award for The Honourable Schoolboy
- 1983, Japan Adventure Fiction Association Prize for The Little Drummer Girl
- 1984, Honorary FellowLincoln College, Oxford
- 1984, Mystery Writers of America Edgar Grand Master 
- 1988, British Crime Writers Association Diamond Dagger Lifetime Achievement Award
- 1988, The Malaparte Prize, Italy
- 1990, Honorary degree, University of Exeter
- 1990, Helmerich Award of the Tulsa Library Trust.
- 1991, Nikos Kazantzakis prize
- 1996, Honorary degree, University of St. Andrews
- 1997, Honorary degree, University of Southampton
- 1998, Honorary degree, University of Bath
- 2005, British Crime Writers Association Dagger of Daggers for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 2005, Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters, France
- 2008, Honorary doctorate, University of Bern
- 2011, Goethe Medal of the Goethe Institute
- 2012, Honorary doctorate, University of Oxford
- ^"Rupert Cornwell". The Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^"Espionage: The Perfect Spy Story". Time. 25 September 1989. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^ abcBrennan, Zoe (2 April 2011). "What Does le Carré Have to Hide?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^"John Le Carre Biography, Plus Links to Book Reviews and Excerpts". BookBrowse. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^ abcAnthony, Andrew (1 November 2009). "Observer Profile: John le Carré: A Man of Great Intelligence". The Observer. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^"Scholar, linguist, story-teller, spy..." 17 July 1993 – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^ abGarton Ash, Timothy. "The Real le Carre". The New Yorker. 15 March 1999.
- ^"The Reverend Vivian Green". The Daily Telegraph. 26 January 2005. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- ^Singh, Anita (24 February 2011). "John le Carré: The Real George Smiley Revealed". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- ^Plimpton, George (Summer 1997). "John le Carré, The Art of Fiction No. 149". Paris Review.
- ^Morrison, Blake (11 April 1986). "Then and Now: John le Carre". Times Literary Supplement. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- ^Brennan, Zoe (2 April 2011). "What Does John Le Carré Have to Hide?". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- ^Debrett's People of Today, "Le Carre – John (pen name of David John Moore Cornwell)," 1 November 2000
- ^Walker, Tim (5 June 2009). Eden, Richard, ed. "Le Carré pays tribute to his first love". The Daily Telegraph.
- ^Herbert, Ian (6 June 2007). "Written in his stars: son of Le Carré gets £300,000 for first novel". The Independent.
- ^Gibbs, Geoffrey (24 July 1999). "Spy Writer Fights for Clifftop Paradise". The Guardian.
- ^ ab"Honorary Graduates 1989 to Present". bath.ac.uk. University of Bath. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- ^"Oxford announces honorary degrees for 2012". University of Oxford. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-26.
- ^Staff writer (5 January 2008). "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". The Times. London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- ^Tayler, Christopher (25 January 2007). "Belgravia Cockney". London Review of Books. 29 (2): 13–14. ISSN 0260-9592. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^ abcHolcombe, Garan (2006). "Contemporary Writers". British Council. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^Rausing, Sigrid. "The Unbearable Peace". Granta. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^"Ox-Tales". Oxfam. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^Snow, Jon. "TV Interview with le Carré". Channel 4 News.
- ^"The spy who came in from the cold". The Economist. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- ^le Carré, John (15 January 2003). "Opinion: The United States of America has gone mad". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- ^Not One More Death. The Library of Congress. 2006.
- ^Tempest, Michelle (2006). The Future of the NHS. ISBN 1-85811-369-5. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- ^Brown, Mark, Arts correspondent (7 September 2017). "John le Carré on Trump: 'Something seriously bad is happening'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- ^"John Le Carré", Bookclub, Radio Four, February 1999.
- ^"Mark Lawson Talks To ... John le Carre"(Adobe Flash). BBC Four. October 2008. (Subscription required (help)). [link expired]
- ^Le Carré betrayed by 'bad lot' spy Kim Philby, Channel 4 News. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- ^Goodman, Amy (20 September 2010). "Legendary British Author John le Carré on Why He Won't Be Reading Tony Blair's Iraq War-Defending Memoir". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
- ^Goodman, Amy (11 October 2010). "Exclusive: British Novelist John le Carré on the Iraq War, Corporate Power, the Exploitation of Africa and His New Novel, Our Kind of Traitor". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- ^December 2010, [[Channel 4, John Le Carre: A Life Unmasked]
- ^CBS News Sunday Morning, 27 February 2013.
- ^Hay Festival Interview with le Carré and Philippe Sands (1 hr 40 mins), 31 May 2013.
- ^Kean, Danuta (7 March 2017). "George Smiley to return in new John le Carré novel, A Legacy of Spies" – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^Robert McCrum (9 March 2014). "A Spy Among Friends Review: Kim Philby's Treacherous Friendship with Nicholas Elliot". The Observer. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- ^Penguin Random House to Publish John le Carré’s Memoir in September 2016, Le Carré Productions, 9 October 2015, retrieved 21 February 2016
- ^"The Complete Smiley". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- ^"John le Carre: 'My Frustration with Britain'". BBC News. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.