Swami Vivekananda Essay In Punjabi Language For Beginners

For other uses, see Swami Vivekananda (disambiguation).

Swami Vivekananda

Vivekananda in Chicago, September 1893. On the left, Vivekananda wrote: "one infinite pure and holy – beyond thought beyond qualities I bow down to thee".[1]

Founder ofRamakrishna Mission (1897)
Ramakrishna Math
PhilosophyModern Vedanta,[2]Rāja yoga
BornNarendranath Datta
(1863-01-12)12 January 1863
Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day Kolkata, West Bengal, India)
Died4 July 1902(1902-07-04) (aged 39)
Belur Math, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day West Bengal, India)
Disciple(s)Ashokananda, Virajananda, Paramananda, Alasinga Perumal, Abhayananda, Sister Nivedita, Swami Sadananda
Literary worksRaja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, My Master, Lectures from Colombo to Almora
InfluencedSubhas Chandra Bose, Aurobindo Ghose, Bagha Jatin, Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, Jawaharlal Nehru, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Jamsetji Tata, Nikola Tesla, Sarah Bernhardt, Emma Calvé, Jagadish Chandra Bose, Annie Besant, Romain Rolland, Narendra Modi, Anna Hazare

Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: [ʃami bibekanɔnd̪o] ( listen); 12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta (Bengali: [nɔrend̪ronat̪ʰ d̪ɔt̪o]), was an IndianHindumonk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna. [4][5] He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world[6] and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India, and contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India. Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission. He is perhaps best known for his speech which began, "Sisters and brothers of America ...," in which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893.

Born into an aristocratic Bengali family of Calcutta, Vivekananda was inclined towards spirituality. He was influenced by his guru, Ramakrishna, from whom he learnt that all living beings were an embodiment of the divine self; therefore, service to God could be rendered by service to mankind. After Ramakrishna's death, Vivekananda toured the Indian subcontinent extensively and acquired first-hand knowledge of the conditions prevailing in British India. He later travelled to the United States, representing India at the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions. Vivekananda conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating tenets of Hindu philosophy in the United States, England and Europe. In India, Vivekananda is regarded as a patriotic saint and his birthday is celebrated there as National Youth Day.

Early life (1863–88)

Birth and childhood

Vivekananda was born Narendranath Datta (shortened to Narendra or Naren) in a kayastha family [13][14]at his ancestral home at 3 Gourmohan Mukherjee Street in Calcutta,[15] the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the Makar Sankranti festival. He belonged to a traditional family and was one of nine siblings. His father, Vishwanath Datta, was an attorney at the Calcutta High Court. Durgacharan Datta, Narendra's grandfather was a Sanskrit and Persian scholar who left his family and became a monk at age twenty-five. His mother, Bhubaneswari Devi, was a devout housewife. The progressive, rational attitude of Narendra's father and the religious temperament of his mother helped shape his thinking and personality.[22]

Narendranath was interested in spirituality from a young age and used to meditate before the images of deities such as Shiva, Rama, Sita, and Mahavir Hanuman. He was fascinated by wandering ascetics and monks. Naren was naughty and restless as a child, and his parents often had difficulty controlling him. His mother said, "I prayed to Shiva for a son and he has sent me one of his ghosts".


In 1871, at the age of eight, Narendranath enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's Metropolitan Institution, where he went to school until his family moved to Raipur in 1877. In 1879, after his family's return to Calcutta, he was the only student to receive first-division marks in the Presidency College entrance examination. He was an avid reader in a wide range of subjects, including philosophy, religion, history, social science, art and literature. He was also interested in Hindu scriptures, including the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Narendra was trained in Indian classical music, and regularly participated in physical exercise, sports and organised activities. Narendra studied Western logic, Western philosophy and European history at the General Assembly's Institution (now known as the Scottish Church College). In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination, and completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884. Narendra studied the works of David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Baruch Spinoza, Georg W. F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Auguste Comte, John Stuart Mill and Charles Darwin. He became fascinated with the evolutionism of Herbert Spencer and corresponded with him,[34] translating Spencer's book Education (1861) into Bengali. While studying Western philosophers, he also learned Sanskrit scriptures and Bengali literature.William Hastie (principal of General Assembly's Institution) wrote, "Narendra is really a genius. I have travelled far and wide but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities, even in German universities, among philosophical students' Some accounts have called Narendra a shrutidhara (a person with a prodigious memory).[citation needed]

Spiritual apprenticeship - influence of Brahmo Samaj

See also: Swami Vivekananda and meditation

In 1880 Narendra joined Keshab Chandra Sen's Nava Vidhan, which was established by Sen after meeting Ramakrishna and reconverting from Christianity to Hinduism. Narendra became a member of a Freemasonry lodge "at some point before 1884" and of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj in his twenties, a breakaway faction of the Brahmo Samaj led by Keshab Chandra Sen and Debendranath Tagore. From 1881 to 1884 he was also active in Sen's Band of Hope, which tried to discourage youths from smoking and drinking.

It was in this cultic milieu that Narendra became acquainted with Western esotericism. His initial beliefs were shaped by Brahmo concepts, which included belief in a formless God and the deprecation of idolatry, and a "streamlined, rationalized, monotheistic theology strongly coloured by a selective and modernistic reading of the Upanisads and of the Vedanta."Rammohan Roy, the founder of the Brahmo Samaj who was strongly influenced by unitarianism, strived toward an universalistic interpretation of Hinduism. His ideas were "altered [...] considerably" by Debendranath Tagore, who had a romantic approach to the development of these new doctrines, and questioned central Hindu beliefs like reincarnation and karma, and rejected the authority of the Vedas. Tagore also brought this "neo-Hinduism" closer in line with western esotericism, a development which was furthered by Keshubchandra Sen. Sen was influenced by transcendentalism, an American philosophical-religious movement strongly connected with unitarianism, which emphasised personal religious experience over mere reasoning and theology. Sen strived to "an accessible, non-renunciatory, everyman type of spirituality", introducing "lay systems of spiritual practice" which can be regarded as prototypes of the kind of Yoga-exercises which Vivekananda popularised in the west.

The same search for direct intuition and understanding can be seen with Vivekananda. Not satisfied with his knowledge of philosophy, Narendra came to "the question which marked the real beginning of his intellectual quest for God." He asked several prominent Calcutta residents if they had come "face to face with God", but none of their answers satisfied him. At this time, Narendra met Debendranath Tagore (the leader of Brahmo Samaj) and asked if he had seen God. Instead of answering his question, Tagore said "My boy, you have the Yogi's eyes." According to Banhatti, it was Ramakrishna who really answered Narendra's question, by saying "Yes, I see Him as I see you, only in an infinitely intenser sense." Nevertheless, Vivekananda was more influenced by the Brahmo Samaj's and its new ideas, than by Ramakrishna. It was Sen's influence who brought Vivekananda fully into contact with western esotericism, and it was also via Sen that he met Ramakrishna.

With Ramakrishna

Main article: Relationship between Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda

See also: Swami Vivekananda's prayer to Kali at Dakshineswar

In 1881 Narendra first met Ramakrishna, who became his spiritual focus after his own father had died in 1884.

Narendra's first introduction to Ramakrishna occurred in a literature class at General Assembly's Institution when he heard Professor William Hastie lecturing on William Wordsworth's poem, The Excursion. While explaining the word "trance" in the poem, Hastie suggested that his students visit Ramakrishna of Dakshineswar to understand the true meaning of trance. This prompted some of his students (including Narendra) to visit Ramakrishna.

They probably first met personally in November 1881,[note 1] though Narendra did not consider this their first meeting, and neither man mentioned this meeting later. At this time Narendra was preparing for his upcoming F. A. examination, when Ram Chandra Datta accompanied him to Surendra Nath Mitra's, house where Ramakrishna was invited to deliver a lecture. According to Paranjape, at this meeting Ramakrishna asked young Narendra to sing. Impressed by his singing talent, he asked Narendra to come to Dakshineshwar.

In late 1881 or early 1882, Narendra went to Dakshineswar with two friends and met Ramakrishna. This meeting proved to be a turning point in his life.[58] Although he did not initially accept Ramakrishna as his teacher and rebelled against his ideas, he was attracted by his personality and began to frequently visit him at Dakshineswar. He initially saw Ramakrishna's ecstasies and visions as "mere figments of imagination"[22] and "hallucinations".[60] As a member of Brahmo Samaj, he opposed idol worship, polytheism and Ramakrishna's worship of Kali. He even rejected the Advaita Vedanta of "identity with the absolute" as blasphemy and madness, and often ridiculed the idea.[60] Narendra tested Ramakrishna, who faced his arguments patiently: "Try to see the truth from all angles", he replied.

Narendra's father's sudden death in 1884 left the family bankrupt; creditors began demanding the repayment of loans, and relatives threatened to evict the family from their ancestral home. Narendra, once a son of a well-to-do family, became one of the poorest students in his college. He unsuccessfully tried to find work and questioned God's existence, but found solace in Ramakrishna and his visits to Dakshineswar increased.

One day Narendra requested Ramakrishna to pray to goddess Kali for their family's financial welfare. Ramakrishna suggested him to go to the temple himself and pray. Following Ramakrishna's suggestion, he went to the temple thrice, but failed to pray for any kind of worldly necessities and ultimately prayed for true knowledge and devotion from the goddess.[66] Narendra gradually grew ready to renounce everything for the sake of realising God, and accepted Ramakrishna as his Guru.

In 1885, Ramakrishna developed throat cancer, and was transferred to Calcutta and (later) to a garden house in Cossipore. Narendra and Ramakrishna's other disciples took care of him during his last days, and Narendra's spiritual education continued. At Cossipore, he experienced Nirvikalpasamadhi. Narendra and several other disciples received ochre robes from Ramakrishna, forming his first monastic order. He was taught that service to men was the most effective worship of God.[22] Ramakrishna asked him to care for the other monastic disciples, and in turn asked them to see Narendra as their leader.[70] Ramakrishna died in the early-morning hours of 16 August 1886 in Cossipore.[70]

Finding of first Ramakrishna Math at Baranagar

Main article: Baranagar Math

After Ramakrishna's death, his devotees and admirers stopped supporting his disciples.[citation needed] Unpaid rent accumulated, and Narendra and the other disciples had to find a new place to live. Many returned home, adopting a Grihastha (family-oriented) way of life. Narendra decided to convert a dilapidated house at Baranagar into a new math (monastery) for the remaining disciples. Rent for the Baranagar Math was low, raised by "holy begging" (mādhukarī). The math became the first building of the Ramakrishna Math: the monastery of the monastic order of Ramakrishna.[58] Narendra and other disciples used to spend many hours in practising meditation and religious austerities every day.[74] Narendra later reminisced about the early days of the monastery:[75]

We underwent a lot of religious practice at the Baranagar Math. We used to get up at 3:00 am and become absorbed in japa and meditation. What a strong spirit of detachment we had in those days! We had no thought even as to whether the world existed or not.

In 1887, Narendra compiled a Bengali song anthology named Sangeet Kalpataru with Vaishnav Charan Basak. Narendra collected and arranged most of the songs of this compilation, but could not finish the work of the book for unfavourable circumstances.

Monastic vows

In December 1886, the mother of Baburam[note 2] invited Narendra and his other brother monks to Antpur village. Narendra and the other aspiring monks accepted the invitation and went to Antpur to spend few days. In Antpur, in the Christmas Eve of 1886, Narendra and eight other disciples took formal monastic vows.[74] They decided to live their lives as their master lived.[74] Narendranath took the name "Swami Vivekananda".

Travels in India (1888–93)

Main article: Swami Vivekananda's travels in India (1888–1893)

In 1888, Narendra left the monastery as a Parivrâjaka— the Hindu religious life of a wandering monk, "without fixed abode, without ties, independent and strangers wherever they go".[78] His sole possessions were a kamandalu (water pot), staff and his two favourite books: the Bhagavad Geeta and The Imitation of Christ. Narendra travelled extensively in India for five years, visiting centres of learning and acquainting himself with diverse religious traditions and social patterns. He developed sympathy for the suffering and poverty of the people, and resolved to uplift the nation.[82] Living primarily on bhiksha (alms), Narendra travelled on foot and by railway (with tickets bought by admirers). During his travels he met, and stayed with Indians from all religions and walks of life: scholars, dewans, rajas, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, paraiyars (low-caste workers) and government officials.[82] Narendra left Bombay for Chicago on 31 May 1893 with the name "Vivekananda", as suggested by Ajit Singh of Khetri, which means "the bliss of discerning wisdom".

First visit to the West (1893–97)

Vivekananda started his journey to the West on 31 May 1893 and visited several cities in Japan (including Nagasaki, Kobe, Yokohama, Osaka, Kyoto and Tokyo), China and Canada en route to the United States, reaching Chicago on 30 July 1893, where the "Parliament of Religions" took place in September 1893. The Congress was an initiative of the Swedenborgian layman, and judge of the Illinois Supreme Court, Charles C. Bonney,[89][90] to gather all the religions of the world, and show "the substantial unity of many religions in the good deeds of the religious life."[89] It was one of the more than 200 adjunct gatherings and congresses of the Chicago's World's Fair,[89] and was "an avant-garde intellectual manifestation of [...] cultic milieus, East and West," with the Brahmo Samaj and the Theosophical Society being invited as being representative of Hinduism.

Vivekananda wanted to join, but was disappointed to learn that no one without credentials from a bona fide organisation would be accepted as a delegate. Vivekananda contacted Professor John Henry Wright of Harvard University, who invited him to speak at Harvard. Vivekananda wrote of the professor, "He urged upon me the necessity of going to the Parliament of Religions, which he thought would give an introduction to the nation".[note 3] Vivekananda submitted an application, "introducing himself as a monk 'of the oldest order of sannyāsis ... founded by Sankara,'" supported by the Brahmo Samaj representative Protapchandra Mozoombar, who was also a member of the Parliament's selection committee, "classifying the Swami as a representative of the Hindu monastic order."

Parliament of the World's Religions

Main article: Swami Vivekananda at the Parliament of the World's Religions (1893)

The Parliament of the World's Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the Art Institute of Chicago as part of the World's Columbian Exposition. On this day, Vivekananda gave a brief speech representing India and Hinduism. He was initially nervous, bowed to Saraswati (the Hindu goddess of learning) and began his speech with "Sisters and brothers of America!". At these words, Vivekananda received a two-minute standing ovation from the crowd of seven thousand. According to Sailendra Nath Dhar, when silence was restored he began his address, greeting the youngest of the nations on behalf of "the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance, of and universal acceptance".[note 4] Vivekananda quoted two illustrative passages from the "Shiva mahimna stotram": "As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!" and "Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me." According to Sailendra Nath Dhar, "[i]t was only a short speech, but it voiced the spirit of the Parliament."[105]

Parliament President John Henry Barrows said, "India, the Mother of religions was represented by Swami Vivekananda, the Orange-monk who exercised the most wonderful influence over his auditors". Vivekananda attracted widespread attention in the press, which called him the "cyclonic monk from India". The New York Critique wrote, "He is an orator by divine right, and his strong, intelligent face in its picturesque setting of yellow and orange was hardly less interesting than those earnest words, and the rich, rhythmical utterance he gave them". The New York Herald noted, "Vivekananda is undoubtedly the greatest figure in the Parliament of Religions. After hearing him we feel how foolish it is to send missionaries to this learned nation". American newspapers reported Vivekananda as "the greatest figure in the parliament of religions" and "the most popular and influential man in the parliament". The Boston Evening Transcript reported that Vivekananda was "a great favourite at the parliament... if he merely crosses the platform, he is applauded".[108] He spoke several more times "at receptions, the scientific section, and private homes" on topics related to Hinduism, Buddhism and harmony among religions until the parliament ended on 27 September 1893. Vivekananda's speeches at the Parliament had the common theme of universality, emphasising religious tolerance. He soon became known as a "handsome oriental" and made a huge impression as an orator.

Sponsorship of Swami Vivekananda for Parliament of the World's Religions

In 1892, Swami Vivekananda stayed with Bhaskara Sethupathy, who was a Raja of Ramnad, when he visited Madurai[111] and he sponsored Vivekananda's visit to Parliament of the World's Religions held in Chicago.

Lecture tours in the UK and US

After the Parliament of Religions, he toured many parts of the US as a guest. His popularity opened up new views for expanding on "life and religion to thousands". During a question-answer session at Brooklyn Ethical Society, he remarked, "I have a message to the West as Buddha had a message to the East."

Vivekananda spent nearly two years lecturing in the eastern and central United States, primarily in Chicago, Detroit, Boston, and New York. He founded the Vedanta Society of New York in 1894. By spring 1895 his busy, tiring schedule had affected his health. He ended his lecture tours and began giving free, private classes in Vedanta and yoga. Beginning in June 1895, Vivekananda gave private lectures to a dozen of his disciples at Thousand Island Park in New York for two months.

During his first visit to the West he travelled to the UK twice, in 1895 and 1896, lecturing successfully there. In November 1895 he met Margaret Elizabeth Noble an Irish woman who would become Sister Nivedita. During his second visit to the UK in May 1896 Vivekananda met Max Müller, a noted Indologist from Oxford University who wrote Ramakrishna's first biography in the West.[105] From the UK, Vivekananda visited other European countries. In Germany he met Paul Deussen, another Indologist.[116] Vivekananda was offered academic positions in two American universities (one the chair in Eastern Philosophy at Harvard University and a similar position at Columbia University); he declined both, since his duties would conflict with his commitment as a monk.

His success led to a change in mission, namely the establishment of Vedanta centres in the West. Vivekananda adapted traditional Hindu ideas and religiosity to suit the needs and understandings of his western audiences, who were especially attracted by and familiar with western esoteric traditions and movements like Transcendentalism and New thought. An important element in his adaptation of Hindu religiosity was the introduction of his "four yogas" model, which includes Raja yoga, his interpretation of Patanjali's Yoga sutras, which offered a practical means to realise the divine force within which is central to modern western esotericism. In 1896 his book Raja Yoga was published, which became an instant success and was highly influential in the western understanding of Yoga.

Vivekananda attracted followers and admirers in the US and Europe, including Josephine MacLeod, William James, Josiah Royce, Robert G. Ingersoll, Nikola Tesla, Lord Kelvin, Harriet Monroe, Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Sarah Bernhardt, Emma Calvé and Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz.[22][116][123] He initiated several followers : Marie Louise (a French woman) became Swami Abhayananda, and Leon Landsberg became Swami Kripananda, so that they could continue the work of the mission of the Vedanta Society. This society still is filled with foreign nationals and is also located in Los Angeles. During his stay in America, Vivekananda was given land in the mountains to the southeast of San Jose, California to establish a retreat for Vedanta students. He called it "Peace retreat", or, Shanti Asrama. The largest American centre is the Vedanta Society of Southern California in Hollywood, (one of the twelve main centres). There is also a Vedanta Press in Hollywood which publishes books about Vedanta and English translations of Hindu scriptures and texts. Christina Greenstidel of Detroit was also initiated by Vivekananda with a mantra and she became Sister Christine, and they established a close father–daughter relationship.[129]

From the West, Vivekananda revived his work in India. He regularly corresponded with his followers and brother monks,[note 5] offering advice and financial support. His letters from this period reflect his campaign of social service, and were strongly worded. He wrote to Akhandananda, "Go from door to door amongst the poor and lower classes of the town of Khetri and teach them religion. Also, let them have oral lessons on geography and such other subjects. No good will come of sitting idle and having princely dishes, and saying "Ramakrishna, O Lord!"—unless you can do some good to the poor". In 1895, Vivekananda founded the periodical Brahmavadin to teach the Vedanta. Later, Vivekananda's translation of the first six chapters of The Imitation of Christ was published in Brahmavadin in 1889. Vivekananda left for India on 16 December 1896 from England with his disciples Captain and Mrs. Sevier and J.J. Goodwin. On the way they visited France and Italy, and set sail for India from Naples on 30 December 1896. He was later followed to India by Sister Nivedita, who devoted the rest of her life to the education of Indian women and India's independence.

Back in India (1897–99)

The ship from Europe arrived in Colombo, British Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 15 January 1897, and Vivekananda received a warm welcome. In Colombo he gave his first public speech in the East. From there on, his journey to Calcutta was triumphant. Vivekananda travelled from Colombo to Pamban, Rameswaram, Ramnad, Madurai, Kumbakonam and Madras, delivering lectures. Common people and rajas gave him an enthusiastic reception. During his train travels, people often sat on the rails to force the train to stop so they could hear him. From Madras, he continued his journey to Calcutta and Almora. While in the West, Vivekananda spoke about India's great spiritual heritage; in India, he repeatedly addressed social issues: uplifting the people, eliminating the caste system, promoting science and industrialisation, addressing widespread poverty and ending colonial rule. These lectures, published as Lectures from Colombo to Almora, demonstrate his nationalistic fervour and spiritual ideology.

On 1 May 1897 in Calcutta, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission for social service. Its ideals are based on Karma Yoga, and its governing body consists of the trustees of the Ramakrishna Math (which conducts religious work). Both Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission have their headquarters at Belur Math.[105] Vivekananda founded two other monasteries: one in Mayavati in the Himalayas (near Almora), the Advaita Ashrama and another in Madras. Two journals were founded: Prabuddha Bharata in English and Udbhodan in Bengali. That year, famine-relief work was begun by Swami Akhandananda in the Murshidabad district.[105]

Vivekananda earlier inspired Jamshedji Tata to set up a research and educational institution when they travelled together from Yokohama to Chicago on Vivekananda's first visit to the West in 1893. Tata now asked him to head his Research Institute of Science; Vivekananda declined the offer, citing a conflict with his "spiritual interests".[144][145] He visited Punjab, attempting to mediate an ideological conflict between Arya Samaj (a reformist Hindu movement) and sanatan (orthodox Hindus).[147] After brief visits to Lahore, Delhi and Khetri, Vivekananda returned to Calcutta in January 1898. He consolidated the work of the math and trained disciples for several months. Vivekananda composed "Khandana Bhava–Bandhana", a prayer song dedicated to Ramakrishna, in 1898.

Second visit to the West and final years (1899–1902)

See also: Swami Vivekananda in California

Despite declining health, Vivekananda left for the West for a second time in June 1899[149] accompanied by Sister Nivedita and Swami Turiyananda. Following a brief stay in England, he went to the United States. During this visit, Vivekananda established Vedanta Societies in San Francisco and New York and founded a shanti ashrama (peace retreat) in California. He then went to Paris for the Congress of Religions in 1900. His lectures in Paris concerned the worship of the lingam and the authenticity of the Bhagavad Gita. Vivekananda then visited Brittany, Vienna, Istanbul, Athens and Egypt. The French philosopher Jules Bois was his host for most of this period, until he returned to Calcutta on 9 December 1900.

After a brief visit to the Advaita Ashrama in Mayavati Vivekananda settled at Belur Math, where he continued co-ordinating the works of Ramakrishna Mission, the math and the work in England and the US. He had many visitors, including royalty and politicians. Although Vivekananda was unable to attend the Congress of Religions in 1901 in Japan due to deteriorating health, he made pilgrimages to Bodhgaya and Varanasi. Declining health (including asthma, diabetes and chronic insomnia) restricted his activity.


On 4 July 1902 (the day of his death) Vivekananda awoke early, went to the monastery at Belur Math and meditated for three hours. He taught Shukla-Yajur-Veda, Sanskrit grammar and the philosophy of yoga to pupils, later discussing with colleagues a planned Vedic college in the Ramakrishna Math. At 7:00 p.m. Vivekananda went to his room, asking not to be disturbed; he died at 9:20 p.m. while meditating. According to his disciples, Vivekananda attained mahasamādhi; the rupture of a blood vessel in his brain was reported as a possible cause of death.[159] His disciples believed that the rupture was due to his brahmarandhra (an opening in the crown of his head) being pierced when he attained

(left) Bhubaneswari Devi (1841–1911); "I am indebted to my mother for the efflorescence of my knowledge."[11] – Vivekananda
(right) 3, Gourmohan Mukherjee Street, birthplace of Vivekananda, now converted into a museum and cultural centre

Vivekananda in Cossipore 1886

(left) Vivekananda on the platform at the Parliament of Religions, September 1893; left to right: Virchand Gandhi, Dharmapala, Vivekananda
(right) Swami Vivekananda with the East Indian group, in the photo: (from left to right) Narasimha Chaira, Lakeshnie Narain, Vivekananda, H. Dharmapala, and Virchand Gandhi

"I do not come", said Swamiji on one occasion in America, "to convert you to a new belief. I want you to keep your own belief; I want to make the Methodist a better Methodist; the Presbyterian a better Presbyterian; the Unitarian a better Unitarian. I want to teach you to live the truth, to reveal the light within your own soul."[112]

(left) Vivekananda at Chennai 1897 (right) Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati (a branch of the Ramakrishna Math founded on 19 March 1899) later published many of Vivekananda's work and now publishes Prabuddha Bharata.

(left) Vivekananda at Belur Math on 19 June 1899
(right) Vivekananda (photo taken in Bushnell Studio, San Francisco, 1900)

Swami Vivekananda (1863—1902)[1] was an Indian Hindu monk and a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world.[2] He was one of the most influential philosophers and social reformers in his contemporary India and the most successful and influential missionaries of Vedanta to the Western world.[3][4] Indian Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore's suggested to study the works of Vivekananda to understand India. He also told, in Vivekananda there was nothing negative, but everything positive.[5]

In last one century, hundreds of scholarly books have been written on Vivekananda, his works and his philosophy in different languages. Sister Nivedita, who was a disciple and a friend of Vivekananda, wrote two books The Master as I Saw Him and Notes of some wanderings with the Swami Vivekananda. The first one was published in 1910 and the second one was published in 1913.[6]Sister Gargi's lifelong research work, a series of six volumes of books, Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries was first published in two volumes in 1957. In 1983-87 these series was republished in six volumes.[7] Bengali scholar and critic Sankari Prasad Basu, who was a director of Swami Vivekananda Archives, Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture wrote several books on Vivekananda such as Vivekananda o Samakalin Bharatbarsha ((in Bengali) 7 volumes), Sahasya Vivekananda(in Bengali), Bandhu Vivekananda(in Bengali) etc.[8]

Monks of Ramakrishna Math and Mission too have written several notable books on the life and works of Vivekananda. Swami Vivekananda and Modern India written by Swami Jagadiswarananda was first published in 1941. In this book the author covered the biography of Vivekananda in brief.[5]Swami Nikhilananda wrote Vivekananda: A Biography which was first published in 1943 from Advaita Ashrama.[9]Yuganayak Vivekananda(in Bengali), written by Swami Gambhirananda was first published in 1966–1967.[7]


Published in his lifetime[10]
Published posthumously

Here is a list of selected books of Swami Vivekananda published after his death (1902)[10]

Books on Swami Vivekananda[edit]


An Analytical Study of the Social Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda: A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Religious Studies at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandStephen AbrahamUniversity of Otago
A Biography of Swami VivekanandaGautam GhoshRupa & Co.ISBN 978-81-291-0149-5
A comprehensive biography of Swami VivekanandaSailendra Nath DharVivekananda Prakashan Kendra
A Short Life of Swami VivekanandaPavitrananda (Swami.)Advaita Ashrama
A study on Swami Vivekananda's doctrine of "Real Man" with special reference to the Christian view of man according to St. Thomas AquinasMariadasan ChellamonyPontificia Universitas Sanctae Crucis
Biography of Swami VivekanandaDharam C. VyasCyber TechISBN 978-81-7884-693-4
Chronology of Swami Vivekananda in the WestTerrance D. Hohner, Carolyn B. KennyPrana PressISBN 978-0-9700868-0-8
Contemporary Indian idealism (with special reference to Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan).Ripusudan Prasad SrivastavaMotilal Banarsidass
Cultural contact and fusion: Swami Vivekananda in the West, 1893–96Satish K. KapoorABS Publications
Did Swami Vivekananda Give Up Hinduism?G. C. AsnaniSister Nivedita Academy
Educational Philosophy of Swami VivekanandaS.V. BharathiDiscovery Publishing HouseISBN 978-81-8356-023-8
Educational philosophy of Swami VivekanandaT. S. AvinashilingamSri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya
Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda and John DeweyD. Vijaya BharathyISBN 978-81-7648-202-8
Ethical ideas in the world outlook of Swami Vivekananda, Lokamanya B.G. Tilak, and Aurobindo GhoseIrina Pavlovna ChelyshevaVostok
Great Political Thinker: Swami VivekanandaS.K. ChaudharySonali PublicationsISBN 978-81-8411-140-8
Harmony of religions: the relevance of Swami VivekanandaKalarikkal Poulose AleazPunthi-PustakISBN 978-81-85094-59-5
Idealistic Philosophy of Swami VivekanandaG. Ranjit SharmaAtlantic Publishers & Distri
Learn Rajayoga from Vivekananda: A Grand Exposition of India's Unique Philosophy and Practice of Yoga, which Swami Vivekananda Made for His American DisciplesMahendra KulasresthaLotus PressISBN 978-81-8382-009-7
Life and Philosophy of Swami VivekanandaG. S BanhattiAtlantic Publishers & DistISBN 978-81-7156-291-6
Life of Swami VivekanandaVivekananda's DisciplesVedanta PressISBN 978-0-87481-085-1
Life of Swami Vivekananda: (12 January 1863 to 4 July 1902); Drama in Engl. Staged on 31 March 1982 at Sri Thyagaraja Hall, Calcutta by Bala Vihar Children, CalcuttaThevarkal Venketes Waraiyer NarayanaswamyCentral Chinmaya Mission Trust
Make me a man, message of Swami VivekanandaT. S. AvinashilingamSri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya
Man Without Frontiers: The Ultimate Concern of Swami VivekanandaMaria Arokiam KanagaSalesian Pontifical University, Faculty of Philosophy
Monastic disciples of Swami Vivekananda: inspiring life-stories of some principal disciplesAbjajānanda (Swami.)Advaita AshramaISBN 978-81-7505-246-8
Negotiating Worlds, Re-envisioning Modernity: Swami Vivekananda and Colonial DiscourseKristen Anne HardyUniversity of Manitoba (Canada)ISBN 978-0-494-22501-1
Neo-Hinduism: an exposition of swami Vivekananda's conception of Vedantism (Yoga philosophy)D. V. AthalyeD.B. Taraporevala sons and co.
Notes of some wanderings with the Swami VivekanandaSister NiveditaUdbodhan, CalcuttaN.A.
Perspectives on Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Vedanta traditionM. Sivaramakrishna, Sumita RoySterling Publishers
Photographs of Swami Vivekananda, 1886–1901Vedanta Society of Northern CaliforniaSri Ramakrishna MathISBN 978-81-7823-000-9
Political Concept of Swami VivekanandaSajal BasuSujan PublicationsISBN 978-81-85549-02-6
Political Philosophy of Swami VivekanandaKalpana MohapatraNorthern Book CentreISBN 978-81-7211-079-6
Prophet disarmed: Vivekananda and NiveditaNarasingha Prosad SilMonash Asia Institute, Centre of South Asian Studies, Monash UniversityISBN 978-0-7326-1161-3
Quintessence of Yoga Philosophy: An Exploration of Swami Vivekananda's Conception of Practical Vedantism (Neo-Hinduism)D. V. AthalyeTaraporevala
Rediscovering Swami VivekanandaAmiya Kumara MajumadaraBPR PublishersISBN 978-81-908841-9-8
Reflections on Swami Vivekananda: Hundred Years After ChicagoM. SivaramkrishnaSouth Asia BooksISBN 978-81-207-1603-2
Religious and moral philosophy of Swami VivekanandaShail Kumari SinghJanaki Prakashan
Religious Revivalism As Nationalist Discourse: Swami Vivekananda and New Hinduism in Nineteenth-Century BengalShamita BasuOxford University PressISBN 978-0-19-565371-7
Reminiscences of Swami Vivekananda: by his Eastern and Western admirersEastern and Western admirersAdvaita Ashrama
Revolutionary Ideas of Swami VivekanandaRabindra Kumar Das GuptaRamakrishna Mission Institute of Culture


Saints of India: Swami VivekanandaShiri Ram Bakshi, Sangh MittraCriterion
Short Life of Swami VivekanandaSwami TejasanandaAdvaita AshramaISBN 978-81-7505-030-3
Social Philosophy of Swami VivekanandaA.R. MohapatraReadworthy Publications (P) LimitedISBN 978-93-80009-01-8
Social Philosophy of Swami VivekanandaSantwana DasguptaRamakrishna Mission Institute of CultureISBN 978-81-87332-43-5
Sri Ramakrishna and Swami VivekanandaJawaharlal NehruAdvaita Ashrama (Publication Department)ISBN 978-81-7505-004-4
Swami VivekanandB. R. KishoreDiamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.ISBN 978-81-7182-952-1
Swami Vivekanand : educational philosopher & his workS.K. ShuklaOmega PublicationsISBN 978-81-8455-091-7
Swami VivekanandaAmiya SenOxford University PressISBN 978-0-19-564565-1
Swami VivekanandaBābūrāma ŚarmāDiamond Pocket Books
Swami VivekanandaDr. M. H. Syed, R. K. Singh, P. K. ChoudhryHimalaya Books
Swami VivekanandaK. L. MiglaniPinnacle TechnologyISBN 978-1-61820-127-0
Swami VivekanandaM. S. NatesonVivekananda Publishing House
Swami VivekanandaN.L. GuptaAnmol Publications Pvt. LtdISBN 978-81-261-1538-9
Swami VivekanandaPremacandaSaraswathi Press
Swami VivekanandaS. PaulSterling Publishers Pvt., LimitedISBN 978-81-7862-440-2
Swami VivekanandaSachi SinhalPrabhat PrakashanISBN 978-81-8430-018-5
Swami VivekanandaSatyakam VidyalankarHind Pocket Books
Swami VivekanandaUna Da ManavadRaghbir Rachnac
Swami VivekanandaVerinder GroverDeep & Deep PublicationsISBN 978-81-7100-570-3
Swami Vivekananda: a forgotten chapter of his lifeBenishankar SharmaOxford Book & Stationary Co.
Swami Vivekananda: A Historical ReviewR. C. MajumdarAdvaita AshramaISBN 978-81-7505-202-4
Swami Vivekananda: A Man with a VisionDevika RangachariPenguin Books LimitedISBN 978-81-8475-563-3
Swami Vivekananda: A Mental and Spiritual BiographyRajagopal ChattopadhyayaVivekananda Math
Swami Vivekananda: A ReassessmentNarasingha Prosad SilSusquehanna University PressISBN 978-0-945636-97-7
Swami Vivekananda: A Sixth Plane Being in San FranciscoBelinda Worthen
Swami Vivekananda: a studyD. V. AthalyeAshish
Swami Vivekananda: A Study on AestheticsMohit ChakrabartiAtlantic Publishers & Distri
Swami Vivekananda : An Iconoclastic AsceticAjeet JawedAne Books IndiaISBN 978-81-8052-195-9
Swami Vivekananda & Success of StudentsA. R. K. SarmaSri Sarada Book House
Swami Vivekananda and His Times: A Series of LecturesB. BhattacharyaNCIC
Swami Vivekananda and Indian NationalismSubodh Chandra Sen GuptaSahitya Samsad
Swami Vivekananda and JapanMedhasanandaISBN 978-4-931148-43-7
Swami Vivekananda and Religious PluralismChacko PuthenpurackalPontificia Universitas Gregoriana
Swami Vivekananda and Sri Ramakrishna in Sri Aurobindo's WritingsSri Aurobindo, K. C. AnandSri Aurobindo SocietyISBN 978-81-7060-208-8
Swami Vivekananda and the emergence of India through spiritual cultureSarvasthananda (Swami.)Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama
Swami Vivekananda and the Future of IndiaRanganathananda (Swami.)Ramakrishna Mission, Institute of Culture
Swami Vivekananda and the Indian quest for socialismArun Kumar BiswasFirma KLM
Swami Vivekananda and the Indian RenaissanceTelliyavaram Mahadevan Ponnambalam MahadevanSri Ramakrishna Mission, Vidyalaya Teachers College
Swami Vivekananda: and the Modern WorldPranab BandyopadhyayUnited WritersISBN 978-81-85328-12-6
Swami Vivekananda and the modernisation of HinduismWilliam RadiceOxford University PressISBN 978-0-19-565093-8
Swami Vivekananda and the World of YouthNabaniharan MukhopadhyayAkhil Bharat Vivekananda Yuva Mahamandal
Swami Vivekananda: Awakener of Modern IndiaR. RamakrishnanSri Ramakrishna Math
Swami Vivekananda centenary memorial volumeRamesh Chandra MajumdarSwami Vivekananda Centenary
Swami Vivekananda's Concept of ServiceSwami SwahanandaSri Ramakrishna MathISBN 978-81-7120-900-2
Swami Vivekananda: Education Of LoveMohit ChakrabartiKanishka PublishersISBN 978-81-7391-822-3
Swami Vivekananda: Epoch-maker Spiritual LeaderSwami JitatmanandaShri Ramakrishna Ashrama
Swami Vivekananda: Excellence In EducationMohit ChakrabartiGyan Publishing HouseISBN 978-81-7835-479-8
Swami Vivekananda: His Dynamic VisionHarbans Lal AgnihotriAman PrakashanISBN 978-81-900402-2-8
Swami Vivekananda: his global visionSantinath ChattopadhyayPunthi PustakISBN 978-81-86791-29-5
Swami Vivekananda, His Human BooksJung Bahadur GoyalFalcon BooksISBN 978-81-900592-0-6
Swami Vivekananda: his life & messageAnil Chandra GhoshPresidency Library
Swami Vivekananda, his life and missionRanganathananda (Swami.)Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture
Swami Vivekananda, His Reconstruction of Hinduism as a Universal ReligionP. M. ThomasMcMaster University
Swami Vivekananda: His Sanyasa ...M. S. NatesanVivekananda Publishing House
Swami Vivekananda, his second visit to the West: new discoveriesMarie Louise BurkeAdvaita Ashrama
Swami Vivekananda in AmericaNivedita Raghunath BhideVivekananda KendraISBN 978-81-89248-22-2
Swami Vivekananda in America: new findingsAsim ChaudhuriAdvaita Ashrama, Publication Dept.ISBN 978-81-7505-297-0
Swami Vivekananda in contemporary Indian news (1893–1902): with Ramakrishna and the MissionBimalakumāra Ghosha, Lakshmi Kanta BoralRamakrishna Mission Institute of CultureISBN 978-81-85843-89-6
Swami Vivekananda in Chicago: new findingsAsim ChaudhuriAdvaita AshramaISBN 978-81-7505-211-6
Swami Vivekananda in India: A Corrective BiographyChattopadhyay RajagopalMotilal Banarsidass Publ.ISBN 978-81-208-1586-5
Swami Vivekananda: India's Emissary to the WestSwami RanganathanandaVivekananda Kendra Prakashan Trust
Swami Vivekananda: insan-i-kamal : revisioningSom P. RanchanIndian Publishers DistributorsISBN 978-81-7341-053-6
Swami Vivekananda in San FranciscoAshokananda (Swami.)Vedanta Society of Northern California
Swami Vivekananda in the WestRajagopal ChattopadhyayaThe Author
Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries (six volumes)Sister GargiAdvaita Ashrama, Kolkata
Swami Vivekananda: Messiah of Resurgent IndiaPranaba Ranjan BhuyanAtlantic Publishers & DistISBN 978-81-269-0234-7
Swami Vivekananda on EducationŚaṅkara AbhyaṅkaraAditya PratishthanISBN 978-81-86879-05-4
Swami Vivekananda on India and Her ProblemsNirvedananda, Swami, compAdvaita Ashrama
Swami Vivekananda on Indian philosophy and literatureRabindra Kumar DasguptaRamakrishna Mission Institute of CultureISBN 978-81-85843-81-0
Swami Vivekananda, patriot-prophet: a studyBhūpendranātha DattaNababharat Publishers
Swami Vivekananda: Pioneer in Social RevolutionVidyotma SinghVista International Publishing HouseISBN 978-81-89942-13-7
Swami Vivekananda: literary biographyCarebanu Cooper
Swami Vivekananda, the educatorV. Sukumaran NairFacet Books InternationalISBN 978-0-932377-10-4
Swami Vivekananda, the known philosopher, the unknown poetRadhika NagrathMeteor BooksISBN 978-81-88248-05-6
Swami Vivekananda: The Living VedantaChaturvedi BadrinathPenguin Books IndiaISBN 978-0-14-306209-7
Swami Vivekananda: the man and his missionSanat Kumar Rai ChaudhuriScientific Book Agency
Swami Vivekananda, the prophet of Vedantic socialismVijendra Kasturi Ranga Varadaraja RaoPublications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India
Swami Vivekananda: Vibrant HumanistMohit ChakrabartiKanishka PublishersISBN 978-81-7391-420-1
Swami Vivekananda Vijnanagita: The Wisdom Song of VivekanandaBabaji Bob KindlerSrv AssocISBN 978-1-891893-09-4
Swami Vivekananda: Visionary Of TruthMohit ChakrabortyAbhijeet PublicationsISBN 978-93-80031-45-3
Swâmi Vivekânanda's contribution to the present ageSatprakashananda (Swami.)Vedanta Society of St. LouisISBN 978-0-916356-58-3
Swami Vivekananda's ideas on history: with special reference to Indian history and cultureTangsal Narayana Vasudeva Rao, Indian Council of Historical ResearchRamakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Institute of Vivekananda Studies
Swami Vivekananda's legacy of service: a study of the Ramakrishna Math and MissionGwilym BeckerleggeOxford University PressISBN 978-0-19-567388-3
Swami Vivekananda's neo-VedāntaRabindra Kumar DasguptaAsiatic Society
Swami Vivekananda's Understanding of Religious Pluralism: A Theological Assessment from a Catholic View Represented by Joseph NeunerSebastian PanjikaranPontificia Universitas Gregoriana, Facultas Theologiae
Swami Vivekananda's Winning Formulas to Become Successful ManagersA. R. K. SarmaSri Sarada Book House


Teaching of Swami VivekanandaEdgar Wesley ThompsonM.E. Publishing House
The cyclonic Swami: Vivekananda in the WestSukalyan Sengupta, Makarand R. ParanjapeSamvad India Foundation, in association with Center for Indic Studies, University of Massachusetts at DartmouthISBN 978-81-901318-2-7
The concept of man according to Swami VivekanandaThaddeus J. KunnumpurathPontificia Studiorum Universitas a S. Thoma Aq. in Urbe
The Hermeneutics of Religious Syncretism: Swami Vivekananda's Practical VedantaThomas L. BrysonUniversity of Chicago, The Divinity School
The Immortal Philosopher of India Swami VivekanandaBhawan Singh Rana and Mīnā Agravāla Meena AgrawalDiamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.ISBN 978-81-288-1001-5
The life of Swami Vivekananda, by his eastern and western disciplesGambhirananda (Swami.)Advaita Ashrama
The Master as I Saw HimSister NiveditaLongmans, Green & Co.,N.A.
The Message of Swami VivekanandaKaran Singh (Sadr-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir)Swami Vivekananda Centenary Celebration and Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee, Publication Department
The Message of Swami Vivekananda: To the Modern WorldK. S. Ramaswami SastriRamakrishna Math
The Mind of Swami Vivekananda: An Anthology and a StudyGautam SenJaico Publishing HouseISBN 978-81-7224-212-1
The Monk As Man: The Unknown Life of Swami Vivekananda1933– SamkaraPenguin Books IndiaISBN 978-0-14-310119-2
The Nationalistic and Religious Lectures of Swami VivekanandaTapasyananda (Swami.)Advaita Ashrama
The Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda: Chicago Address Centenary Volume : Homage from Visva-BharatiPradip Kumar SenguptaProgressive Publishers
The political philosophy of Swami VivekanandaA. V. Rathna ReddySterling
The Religious and Political Thought of Swami VivekanandaAron HarilelaUniversity of Hull
The social philosophy of Swami Vivekananda: its relevance to modern IndiaAbraham StephenIndian Society for Promoting Christian KnowledgeISBN 978-81-7214-843-0
The Socio-Political Philosophy of Swami VivekanandaBhaiya Subhash Chandra PrasadUniversal-PublishersISBN 978-1-58112-075-2
The social and political ideas of Swami VivekanandaS. S. MitalMetropolitan
The Swami Vivekananda: A StudyMano Mohan GangulyContemporary Publishers
The universal symphony of Swami VivekanandaRanganathananda (Swami.)
The Vedantic Synthesis of Swami VivekanandaAndrew Avison RossUniversity of Canterbury
The Teachings of Swami VivekanandaAvyaktananda (Swami.)Vedanta Movement
The Vedānta of Swami VivekanandaB. PrasannakumaryWriters Workshop PublicationISBN 978-81-7595-307-9
The Vedanta of Swami VivekanandaSuhas Ranjan RaySristi Prakashan
VivekanandaGajanan KhergamkerJaico Publishing HouseISBN 978-81-7992-171-5
Vivekananda: A BiographySwami Nikhilananda
Vivekenanda: a comprehensive studyJyotir Maya Nanda (Swami)Swami JyotirmayanandaISBN 978-81-85304-66-3
Vivekananda and Indian renaissanceB. K. Ahluwalia, Shashi AhluwaliaAssociated Pub. Co.
Vivekananda: his gospel of man-making with a garland of tributes and a chronicle of his life and times, with picturesJyotir Maya Nanda (Swami)Swami JyotirmayanandaISBN 978-81-85304-66-3
Vivekananda: World TeacherSwami AdiswaranandaISBN 978-1-59473-210-2
Vivekananda, the prophet of human emancipation: a study on the social philosophy of Swami VivekanandaSantwana DasguptaBijaya Dasgupta
Vivekananda, the warrior saint: a biographical studyHaṃsrāja RahabaraFarsight Publishers & Distributors
Vivekananda: The Yogas and Other WorksSwami HikhilanandaRamakrishna Vivekanada CenterISBN 978-0-911206-04-3
Vivekananda's approach to social workIndira PatelSri Ramakrishna Math
Vivekananda's influence on SubhasNanda MookerjeeJayasree Prakashan
Vivekananda's message to the youthVijendra Kasturi Ranga Varadaraja Rao, T. S. AvinashilingamBharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Vivekananda ReaderSwami Narasimhananda (edited)Advaita AshramaISBN 978-81-7505-364-9
Wandering Monk: Permanent Exhibition at Kanyakumari on Swami Vivekananda as a ParivrajakaM. Lakshmi KumariVivekananda Kendra
Western women in the footsteps of Swami VivekanandaAtmaprana (Pravrajika.)Ramakrishna Sarada Mission
Wisdom of VivekanandSachin SinhalPrabhat PrakashanISBN 978-81-8430-062-8
What Religion Is in the Words of Swami VivekanandaJohn YaleKessinger PublishingISBN 978-1-4254-8880-2

See also[edit]



Works cited[edit]

  • Bharathi, K. S. (1998). Encyclopaedia of Eminent Thinkers: The political thought of Vivekananda. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-709-0. 
  • Chaube, Sarayu Prasad (2005). Recent Philosophies On Education On India. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-216-1. 
  • Vivekananda, Swami (2006). The Indispensable Vivekananda: An Anthology for Our Times. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-7824-130-2. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  • Mohapatra, Amulya Ranjan (2009). Swaraj - Thoughts of Gandhi, Tilak, Aurobindo, Raja Rammohun Roy, Tagore & Vivekananda. Readworthy. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-81-89973-82-7. 
  • Piazza, Paul (1978). Christopher Isherwood: Myth and Anti-Myth. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51358-6. 
  • Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal (1999). Swami Vivekananda in India: A Corrective Biography. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1586-5. 
  • Dutt, Kartik Chandra (1999). Who's who of Indian Writers, 1999: A-M. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0873-5. 

External links[edit]

  1. ^Chaube 2005, p. 52
  2. ^Vivekananda 2006, p. 11
  3. ^Mohapatra 2009, p. 14
  4. ^Piazza 1978, p. 59
  5. ^ abChattopadhyaya 1999, p. 314
  6. ^Chattopadhyaya 1999, p. 299
  7. ^ abChattopadhyaya 1999, p. 326
  8. ^Dutt 1999, p. 121
  9. ^Chattopadhyaya 1999, p. 316
  10. ^ ab"Vivekananda Library online". vivekananda.net. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 

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