For other uses, see Swami Vivekananda (disambiguation).
Vivekananda in Chicago, September 1893. On the left, Vivekananda wrote: "one infinite pure and holy – beyond thought beyond qualities I bow down to thee".
|Founder of||Ramakrishna Mission (1897)|
|Philosophy||Modern Vedanta,Rāja yoga|
(1863-01-12)12 January 1863
Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day Kolkata, West Bengal, India)
|Died||4 July 1902(1902-07-04) (aged 39)|
Belur Math, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day West Bengal, India)
|Disciple(s)||Ashokananda, Virajananda, Paramananda, Alasinga Perumal, Abhayananda, Sister Nivedita, Swami Sadananda|
|Literary works||Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, My Master, Lectures from Colombo to Almora|
|Influenced||Subhas Chandra Bose, Aurobindo Ghose, Bagha Jatin, Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, Jawaharlal Nehru, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Jamsetji Tata, Nikola Tesla, Sarah Bernhardt, Emma Calvé, Jagadish Chandra Bose, Annie Besant, Romain Rolland, Narendra Modi, Anna Hazare|
Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: [ʃami bibekanɔnd̪o] ( listen); 12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta (Bengali: [nɔrend̪ronat̪ʰ d̪ɔt̪o]), was an IndianHindumonk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.  He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India, and contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India. Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission. He is perhaps best known for his speech which began, "Sisters and brothers of America ...," in which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893.
Born into an aristocratic Bengali family of Calcutta, Vivekananda was inclined towards spirituality. He was influenced by his guru, Ramakrishna, from whom he learnt that all living beings were an embodiment of the divine self; therefore, service to God could be rendered by service to mankind. After Ramakrishna's death, Vivekananda toured the Indian subcontinent extensively and acquired first-hand knowledge of the conditions prevailing in British India. He later travelled to the United States, representing India at the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions. Vivekananda conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating tenets of Hindu philosophy in the United States, England and Europe. In India, Vivekananda is regarded as a patriotic saint and his birthday is celebrated there as National Youth Day.
Early life (1863–88)
Birth and childhood
Vivekananda was born Narendranath Datta (shortened to Narendra or Naren) in a kayastha family at his ancestral home at 3 Gourmohan Mukherjee Street in Calcutta, the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the Makar Sankranti festival. He belonged to a traditional family and was one of nine siblings. His father, Vishwanath Datta, was an attorney at the Calcutta High Court. Durgacharan Datta, Narendra's grandfather was a Sanskrit and Persian scholar who left his family and became a monk at age twenty-five. His mother, Bhubaneswari Devi, was a devout housewife. The progressive, rational attitude of Narendra's father and the religious temperament of his mother helped shape his thinking and personality.
Narendranath was interested in spirituality from a young age and used to meditate before the images of deities such as Shiva, Rama, Sita, and Mahavir Hanuman. He was fascinated by wandering ascetics and monks. Naren was naughty and restless as a child, and his parents often had difficulty controlling him. His mother said, "I prayed to Shiva for a son and he has sent me one of his ghosts".
In 1871, at the age of eight, Narendranath enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's Metropolitan Institution, where he went to school until his family moved to Raipur in 1877. In 1879, after his family's return to Calcutta, he was the only student to receive first-division marks in the Presidency College entrance examination. He was an avid reader in a wide range of subjects, including philosophy, religion, history, social science, art and literature. He was also interested in Hindu scriptures, including the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Narendra was trained in Indian classical music, and regularly participated in physical exercise, sports and organised activities. Narendra studied Western logic, Western philosophy and European history at the General Assembly's Institution (now known as the Scottish Church College). In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination, and completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884. Narendra studied the works of David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Baruch Spinoza, Georg W. F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Auguste Comte, John Stuart Mill and Charles Darwin. He became fascinated with the evolutionism of Herbert Spencer and corresponded with him, translating Spencer's book Education (1861) into Bengali. While studying Western philosophers, he also learned Sanskrit scriptures and Bengali literature.William Hastie (principal of General Assembly's Institution) wrote, "Narendra is really a genius. I have travelled far and wide but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities, even in German universities, among philosophical students' Some accounts have called Narendra a shrutidhara (a person with a prodigious memory).
Spiritual apprenticeship - influence of Brahmo Samaj
See also: Swami Vivekananda and meditation
In 1880 Narendra joined Keshab Chandra Sen's Nava Vidhan, which was established by Sen after meeting Ramakrishna and reconverting from Christianity to Hinduism. Narendra became a member of a Freemasonry lodge "at some point before 1884" and of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj in his twenties, a breakaway faction of the Brahmo Samaj led by Keshab Chandra Sen and Debendranath Tagore. From 1881 to 1884 he was also active in Sen's Band of Hope, which tried to discourage youths from smoking and drinking.
It was in this cultic milieu that Narendra became acquainted with Western esotericism. His initial beliefs were shaped by Brahmo concepts, which included belief in a formless God and the deprecation of idolatry, and a "streamlined, rationalized, monotheistic theology strongly coloured by a selective and modernistic reading of the Upanisads and of the Vedanta."Rammohan Roy, the founder of the Brahmo Samaj who was strongly influenced by unitarianism, strived toward an universalistic interpretation of Hinduism. His ideas were "altered [...] considerably" by Debendranath Tagore, who had a romantic approach to the development of these new doctrines, and questioned central Hindu beliefs like reincarnation and karma, and rejected the authority of the Vedas. Tagore also brought this "neo-Hinduism" closer in line with western esotericism, a development which was furthered by Keshubchandra Sen. Sen was influenced by transcendentalism, an American philosophical-religious movement strongly connected with unitarianism, which emphasised personal religious experience over mere reasoning and theology. Sen strived to "an accessible, non-renunciatory, everyman type of spirituality", introducing "lay systems of spiritual practice" which can be regarded as prototypes of the kind of Yoga-exercises which Vivekananda popularised in the west.
The same search for direct intuition and understanding can be seen with Vivekananda. Not satisfied with his knowledge of philosophy, Narendra came to "the question which marked the real beginning of his intellectual quest for God." He asked several prominent Calcutta residents if they had come "face to face with God", but none of their answers satisfied him. At this time, Narendra met Debendranath Tagore (the leader of Brahmo Samaj) and asked if he had seen God. Instead of answering his question, Tagore said "My boy, you have the Yogi's eyes." According to Banhatti, it was Ramakrishna who really answered Narendra's question, by saying "Yes, I see Him as I see you, only in an infinitely intenser sense." Nevertheless, Vivekananda was more influenced by the Brahmo Samaj's and its new ideas, than by Ramakrishna. It was Sen's influence who brought Vivekananda fully into contact with western esotericism, and it was also via Sen that he met Ramakrishna.
Main article: Relationship between Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda
See also: Swami Vivekananda's prayer to Kali at Dakshineswar
In 1881 Narendra first met Ramakrishna, who became his spiritual focus after his own father had died in 1884.
Narendra's first introduction to Ramakrishna occurred in a literature class at General Assembly's Institution when he heard Professor William Hastie lecturing on William Wordsworth's poem, The Excursion. While explaining the word "trance" in the poem, Hastie suggested that his students visit Ramakrishna of Dakshineswar to understand the true meaning of trance. This prompted some of his students (including Narendra) to visit Ramakrishna.
They probably first met personally in November 1881,[note 1] though Narendra did not consider this their first meeting, and neither man mentioned this meeting later. At this time Narendra was preparing for his upcoming F. A. examination, when Ram Chandra Datta accompanied him to Surendra Nath Mitra's, house where Ramakrishna was invited to deliver a lecture. According to Paranjape, at this meeting Ramakrishna asked young Narendra to sing. Impressed by his singing talent, he asked Narendra to come to Dakshineshwar.
In late 1881 or early 1882, Narendra went to Dakshineswar with two friends and met Ramakrishna. This meeting proved to be a turning point in his life. Although he did not initially accept Ramakrishna as his teacher and rebelled against his ideas, he was attracted by his personality and began to frequently visit him at Dakshineswar. He initially saw Ramakrishna's ecstasies and visions as "mere figments of imagination" and "hallucinations". As a member of Brahmo Samaj, he opposed idol worship, polytheism and Ramakrishna's worship of Kali. He even rejected the Advaita Vedanta of "identity with the absolute" as blasphemy and madness, and often ridiculed the idea. Narendra tested Ramakrishna, who faced his arguments patiently: "Try to see the truth from all angles", he replied.
Narendra's father's sudden death in 1884 left the family bankrupt; creditors began demanding the repayment of loans, and relatives threatened to evict the family from their ancestral home. Narendra, once a son of a well-to-do family, became one of the poorest students in his college. He unsuccessfully tried to find work and questioned God's existence, but found solace in Ramakrishna and his visits to Dakshineswar increased.
One day Narendra requested Ramakrishna to pray to goddess Kali for their family's financial welfare. Ramakrishna suggested him to go to the temple himself and pray. Following Ramakrishna's suggestion, he went to the temple thrice, but failed to pray for any kind of worldly necessities and ultimately prayed for true knowledge and devotion from the goddess. Narendra gradually grew ready to renounce everything for the sake of realising God, and accepted Ramakrishna as his Guru.
In 1885, Ramakrishna developed throat cancer, and was transferred to Calcutta and (later) to a garden house in Cossipore. Narendra and Ramakrishna's other disciples took care of him during his last days, and Narendra's spiritual education continued. At Cossipore, he experienced Nirvikalpasamadhi. Narendra and several other disciples received ochre robes from Ramakrishna, forming his first monastic order. He was taught that service to men was the most effective worship of God. Ramakrishna asked him to care for the other monastic disciples, and in turn asked them to see Narendra as their leader. Ramakrishna died in the early-morning hours of 16 August 1886 in Cossipore.
Finding of first Ramakrishna Math at Baranagar
Main article: Baranagar Math
After Ramakrishna's death, his devotees and admirers stopped supporting his disciples. Unpaid rent accumulated, and Narendra and the other disciples had to find a new place to live. Many returned home, adopting a Grihastha (family-oriented) way of life. Narendra decided to convert a dilapidated house at Baranagar into a new math (monastery) for the remaining disciples. Rent for the Baranagar Math was low, raised by "holy begging" (mādhukarī). The math became the first building of the Ramakrishna Math: the monastery of the monastic order of Ramakrishna. Narendra and other disciples used to spend many hours in practising meditation and religious austerities every day. Narendra later reminisced about the early days of the monastery:
We underwent a lot of religious practice at the Baranagar Math. We used to get up at 3:00 am and become absorbed in japa and meditation. What a strong spirit of detachment we had in those days! We had no thought even as to whether the world existed or not.
In 1887, Narendra compiled a Bengali song anthology named Sangeet Kalpataru with Vaishnav Charan Basak. Narendra collected and arranged most of the songs of this compilation, but could not finish the work of the book for unfavourable circumstances.
In December 1886, the mother of Baburam[note 2] invited Narendra and his other brother monks to Antpur village. Narendra and the other aspiring monks accepted the invitation and went to Antpur to spend few days. In Antpur, in the Christmas Eve of 1886, Narendra and eight other disciples took formal monastic vows. They decided to live their lives as their master lived. Narendranath took the name "Swami Vivekananda".
Travels in India (1888–93)
Main article: Swami Vivekananda's travels in India (1888–1893)
In 1888, Narendra left the monastery as a Parivrâjaka— the Hindu religious life of a wandering monk, "without fixed abode, without ties, independent and strangers wherever they go". His sole possessions were a kamandalu (water pot), staff and his two favourite books: the Bhagavad Geeta and The Imitation of Christ. Narendra travelled extensively in India for five years, visiting centres of learning and acquainting himself with diverse religious traditions and social patterns. He developed sympathy for the suffering and poverty of the people, and resolved to uplift the nation. Living primarily on bhiksha (alms), Narendra travelled on foot and by railway (with tickets bought by admirers). During his travels he met, and stayed with Indians from all religions and walks of life: scholars, dewans, rajas, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, paraiyars (low-caste workers) and government officials. Narendra left Bombay for Chicago on 31 May 1893 with the name "Vivekananda", as suggested by Ajit Singh of Khetri, which means "the bliss of discerning wisdom".
First visit to the West (1893–97)
Vivekananda started his journey to the West on 31 May 1893 and visited several cities in Japan (including Nagasaki, Kobe, Yokohama, Osaka, Kyoto and Tokyo), China and Canada en route to the United States, reaching Chicago on 30 July 1893, where the "Parliament of Religions" took place in September 1893. The Congress was an initiative of the Swedenborgian layman, and judge of the Illinois Supreme Court, Charles C. Bonney, to gather all the religions of the world, and show "the substantial unity of many religions in the good deeds of the religious life." It was one of the more than 200 adjunct gatherings and congresses of the Chicago's World's Fair, and was "an avant-garde intellectual manifestation of [...] cultic milieus, East and West," with the Brahmo Samaj and the Theosophical Society being invited as being representative of Hinduism.
Vivekananda wanted to join, but was disappointed to learn that no one without credentials from a bona fide organisation would be accepted as a delegate. Vivekananda contacted Professor John Henry Wright of Harvard University, who invited him to speak at Harvard. Vivekananda wrote of the professor, "He urged upon me the necessity of going to the Parliament of Religions, which he thought would give an introduction to the nation".[note 3] Vivekananda submitted an application, "introducing himself as a monk 'of the oldest order of sannyāsis ... founded by Sankara,'" supported by the Brahmo Samaj representative Protapchandra Mozoombar, who was also a member of the Parliament's selection committee, "classifying the Swami as a representative of the Hindu monastic order."
Parliament of the World's Religions
Main article: Swami Vivekananda at the Parliament of the World's Religions (1893)
The Parliament of the World's Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the Art Institute of Chicago as part of the World's Columbian Exposition. On this day, Vivekananda gave a brief speech representing India and Hinduism. He was initially nervous, bowed to Saraswati (the Hindu goddess of learning) and began his speech with "Sisters and brothers of America!". At these words, Vivekananda received a two-minute standing ovation from the crowd of seven thousand. According to Sailendra Nath Dhar, when silence was restored he began his address, greeting the youngest of the nations on behalf of "the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance, of and universal acceptance".[note 4] Vivekananda quoted two illustrative passages from the "Shiva mahimna stotram": "As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!" and "Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me." According to Sailendra Nath Dhar, "[i]t was only a short speech, but it voiced the spirit of the Parliament."
Parliament President John Henry Barrows said, "India, the Mother of religions was represented by Swami Vivekananda, the Orange-monk who exercised the most wonderful influence over his auditors". Vivekananda attracted widespread attention in the press, which called him the "cyclonic monk from India". The New York Critique wrote, "He is an orator by divine right, and his strong, intelligent face in its picturesque setting of yellow and orange was hardly less interesting than those earnest words, and the rich, rhythmical utterance he gave them". The New York Herald noted, "Vivekananda is undoubtedly the greatest figure in the Parliament of Religions. After hearing him we feel how foolish it is to send missionaries to this learned nation". American newspapers reported Vivekananda as "the greatest figure in the parliament of religions" and "the most popular and influential man in the parliament". The Boston Evening Transcript reported that Vivekananda was "a great favourite at the parliament... if he merely crosses the platform, he is applauded". He spoke several more times "at receptions, the scientific section, and private homes" on topics related to Hinduism, Buddhism and harmony among religions until the parliament ended on 27 September 1893. Vivekananda's speeches at the Parliament had the common theme of universality, emphasising religious tolerance. He soon became known as a "handsome oriental" and made a huge impression as an orator.
Sponsorship of Swami Vivekananda for Parliament of the World's Religions
In 1892, Swami Vivekananda stayed with Bhaskara Sethupathy, who was a Raja of Ramnad, when he visited Madurai and he sponsored Vivekananda's visit to Parliament of the World's Religions held in Chicago.
Lecture tours in the UK and US
After the Parliament of Religions, he toured many parts of the US as a guest. His popularity opened up new views for expanding on "life and religion to thousands". During a question-answer session at Brooklyn Ethical Society, he remarked, "I have a message to the West as Buddha had a message to the East."
Vivekananda spent nearly two years lecturing in the eastern and central United States, primarily in Chicago, Detroit, Boston, and New York. He founded the Vedanta Society of New York in 1894. By spring 1895 his busy, tiring schedule had affected his health. He ended his lecture tours and began giving free, private classes in Vedanta and yoga. Beginning in June 1895, Vivekananda gave private lectures to a dozen of his disciples at Thousand Island Park in New York for two months.
During his first visit to the West he travelled to the UK twice, in 1895 and 1896, lecturing successfully there. In November 1895 he met Margaret Elizabeth Noble an Irish woman who would become Sister Nivedita. During his second visit to the UK in May 1896 Vivekananda met Max Müller, a noted Indologist from Oxford University who wrote Ramakrishna's first biography in the West. From the UK, Vivekananda visited other European countries. In Germany he met Paul Deussen, another Indologist. Vivekananda was offered academic positions in two American universities (one the chair in Eastern Philosophy at Harvard University and a similar position at Columbia University); he declined both, since his duties would conflict with his commitment as a monk.
His success led to a change in mission, namely the establishment of Vedanta centres in the West. Vivekananda adapted traditional Hindu ideas and religiosity to suit the needs and understandings of his western audiences, who were especially attracted by and familiar with western esoteric traditions and movements like Transcendentalism and New thought. An important element in his adaptation of Hindu religiosity was the introduction of his "four yogas" model, which includes Raja yoga, his interpretation of Patanjali's Yoga sutras, which offered a practical means to realise the divine force within which is central to modern western esotericism. In 1896 his book Raja Yoga was published, which became an instant success and was highly influential in the western understanding of Yoga.
Vivekananda attracted followers and admirers in the US and Europe, including Josephine MacLeod, William James, Josiah Royce, Robert G. Ingersoll, Nikola Tesla, Lord Kelvin, Harriet Monroe, Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Sarah Bernhardt, Emma Calvé and Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz. He initiated several followers : Marie Louise (a French woman) became Swami Abhayananda, and Leon Landsberg became Swami Kripananda, so that they could continue the work of the mission of the Vedanta Society. This society still is filled with foreign nationals and is also located in Los Angeles. During his stay in America, Vivekananda was given land in the mountains to the southeast of San Jose, California to establish a retreat for Vedanta students. He called it "Peace retreat", or, Shanti Asrama. The largest American centre is the Vedanta Society of Southern California in Hollywood, (one of the twelve main centres). There is also a Vedanta Press in Hollywood which publishes books about Vedanta and English translations of Hindu scriptures and texts. Christina Greenstidel of Detroit was also initiated by Vivekananda with a mantra and she became Sister Christine, and they established a close father–daughter relationship.
From the West, Vivekananda revived his work in India. He regularly corresponded with his followers and brother monks,[note 5] offering advice and financial support. His letters from this period reflect his campaign of social service, and were strongly worded. He wrote to Akhandananda, "Go from door to door amongst the poor and lower classes of the town of Khetri and teach them religion. Also, let them have oral lessons on geography and such other subjects. No good will come of sitting idle and having princely dishes, and saying "Ramakrishna, O Lord!"—unless you can do some good to the poor". In 1895, Vivekananda founded the periodical Brahmavadin to teach the Vedanta. Later, Vivekananda's translation of the first six chapters of The Imitation of Christ was published in Brahmavadin in 1889. Vivekananda left for India on 16 December 1896 from England with his disciples Captain and Mrs. Sevier and J.J. Goodwin. On the way they visited France and Italy, and set sail for India from Naples on 30 December 1896. He was later followed to India by Sister Nivedita, who devoted the rest of her life to the education of Indian women and India's independence.
Back in India (1897–99)
The ship from Europe arrived in Colombo, British Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 15 January 1897, and Vivekananda received a warm welcome. In Colombo he gave his first public speech in the East. From there on, his journey to Calcutta was triumphant. Vivekananda travelled from Colombo to Pamban, Rameswaram, Ramnad, Madurai, Kumbakonam and Madras, delivering lectures. Common people and rajas gave him an enthusiastic reception. During his train travels, people often sat on the rails to force the train to stop so they could hear him. From Madras, he continued his journey to Calcutta and Almora. While in the West, Vivekananda spoke about India's great spiritual heritage; in India, he repeatedly addressed social issues: uplifting the people, eliminating the caste system, promoting science and industrialisation, addressing widespread poverty and ending colonial rule. These lectures, published as Lectures from Colombo to Almora, demonstrate his nationalistic fervour and spiritual ideology.
On 1 May 1897 in Calcutta, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission for social service. Its ideals are based on Karma Yoga, and its governing body consists of the trustees of the Ramakrishna Math (which conducts religious work). Both Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission have their headquarters at Belur Math. Vivekananda founded two other monasteries: one in Mayavati in the Himalayas (near Almora), the Advaita Ashrama and another in Madras. Two journals were founded: Prabuddha Bharata in English and Udbhodan in Bengali. That year, famine-relief work was begun by Swami Akhandananda in the Murshidabad district.
Vivekananda earlier inspired Jamshedji Tata to set up a research and educational institution when they travelled together from Yokohama to Chicago on Vivekananda's first visit to the West in 1893. Tata now asked him to head his Research Institute of Science; Vivekananda declined the offer, citing a conflict with his "spiritual interests". He visited Punjab, attempting to mediate an ideological conflict between Arya Samaj (a reformist Hindu movement) and sanatan (orthodox Hindus). After brief visits to Lahore, Delhi and Khetri, Vivekananda returned to Calcutta in January 1898. He consolidated the work of the math and trained disciples for several months. Vivekananda composed "Khandana Bhava–Bandhana", a prayer song dedicated to Ramakrishna, in 1898.
Second visit to the West and final years (1899–1902)
See also: Swami Vivekananda in California
Despite declining health, Vivekananda left for the West for a second time in June 1899 accompanied by Sister Nivedita and Swami Turiyananda. Following a brief stay in England, he went to the United States. During this visit, Vivekananda established Vedanta Societies in San Francisco and New York and founded a shanti ashrama (peace retreat) in California. He then went to Paris for the Congress of Religions in 1900. His lectures in Paris concerned the worship of the lingam and the authenticity of the Bhagavad Gita. Vivekananda then visited Brittany, Vienna, Istanbul, Athens and Egypt. The French philosopher Jules Bois was his host for most of this period, until he returned to Calcutta on 9 December 1900.
After a brief visit to the Advaita Ashrama in Mayavati Vivekananda settled at Belur Math, where he continued co-ordinating the works of Ramakrishna Mission, the math and the work in England and the US. He had many visitors, including royalty and politicians. Although Vivekananda was unable to attend the Congress of Religions in 1901 in Japan due to deteriorating health, he made pilgrimages to Bodhgaya and Varanasi. Declining health (including asthma, diabetes and chronic insomnia) restricted his activity.
On 4 July 1902 (the day of his death) Vivekananda awoke early, went to the monastery at Belur Math and meditated for three hours. He taught Shukla-Yajur-Veda, Sanskrit grammar and the philosophy of yoga to pupils, later discussing with colleagues a planned Vedic college in the Ramakrishna Math. At 7:00 p.m. Vivekananda went to his room, asking not to be disturbed; he died at 9:20 p.m. while meditating. According to his disciples, Vivekananda attained mahasamādhi; the rupture of a blood vessel in his brain was reported as a possible cause of death. His disciples believed that the rupture was due to his brahmarandhra (an opening in the crown of his head) being pierced when he attained
(left) Bhubaneswari Devi (1841–1911); "I am indebted to my mother for the efflorescence of my knowledge." – Vivekananda
(right) 3, Gourmohan Mukherjee Street, birthplace of Vivekananda, now converted into a museum and cultural centre
Vivekananda in Cossipore 1886
(left) Vivekananda on the platform at the Parliament of Religions, September 1893; left to right: Virchand Gandhi, Dharmapala, Vivekananda
(right) Swami Vivekananda with the East Indian group, in the photo: (from left to right) Narasimha Chaira, Lakeshnie Narain, Vivekananda, H. Dharmapala, and Virchand Gandhi
"I do not come", said Swamiji on one occasion in America, "to convert you to a new belief. I want you to keep your own belief; I want to make the Methodist a better Methodist; the Presbyterian a better Presbyterian; the Unitarian a better Unitarian. I want to teach you to live the truth, to reveal the light within your own soul."
(left) Vivekananda at Chennai 1897 (right) Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati (a branch of the Ramakrishna Math founded on 19 March 1899) later published many of Vivekananda's work and now publishes Prabuddha Bharata.
(left) Vivekananda at Belur Math on 19 June 1899
(right) Vivekananda (photo taken in Bushnell Studio, San Francisco, 1900)
Swami Vivekananda (1863—1902) was an Indian Hindu monk and a key figure in the introduction of Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the western world. He was one of the most influential philosophers and social reformers in his contemporary India and the most successful and influential missionaries of Vedanta to the Western world. Indian Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore's suggested to study the works of Vivekananda to understand India. He also told, in Vivekananda there was nothing negative, but everything positive.
In last one century, hundreds of scholarly books have been written on Vivekananda, his works and his philosophy in different languages. Sister Nivedita, who was a disciple and a friend of Vivekananda, wrote two books The Master as I Saw Him and Notes of some wanderings with the Swami Vivekananda. The first one was published in 1910 and the second one was published in 1913.Sister Gargi's lifelong research work, a series of six volumes of books, Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries was first published in two volumes in 1957. In 1983-87 these series was republished in six volumes. Bengali scholar and critic Sankari Prasad Basu, who was a director of Swami Vivekananda Archives, Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture wrote several books on Vivekananda such as Vivekananda o Samakalin Bharatbarsha ((in Bengali) 7 volumes), Sahasya Vivekananda(in Bengali), Bandhu Vivekananda(in Bengali) etc.
Monks of Ramakrishna Math and Mission too have written several notable books on the life and works of Vivekananda. Swami Vivekananda and Modern India written by Swami Jagadiswarananda was first published in 1941. In this book the author covered the biography of Vivekananda in brief.Swami Nikhilananda wrote Vivekananda: A Biography which was first published in 1943 from Advaita Ashrama.Yuganayak Vivekananda(in Bengali), written by Swami Gambhirananda was first published in 1966–1967.
- Published in his lifetime
- Published posthumously
Here is a list of selected books of Swami Vivekananda published after his death (1902)
Books on Swami Vivekananda
|An Analytical Study of the Social Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda: A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Religious Studies at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand||Stephen Abraham||University of Otago|
|A Biography of Swami Vivekananda||Gautam Ghosh||Rupa & Co.||ISBN 978-81-291-0149-5|
|A comprehensive biography of Swami Vivekananda||Sailendra Nath Dhar||Vivekananda Prakashan Kendra|
|A Short Life of Swami Vivekananda||Pavitrananda (Swami.)||Advaita Ashrama|
|A study on Swami Vivekananda's doctrine of "Real Man" with special reference to the Christian view of man according to St. Thomas Aquinas||Mariadasan Chellamony||Pontificia Universitas Sanctae Crucis|
|Biography of Swami Vivekananda||Dharam C. Vyas||Cyber Tech||ISBN 978-81-7884-693-4|
|Chronology of Swami Vivekananda in the West||Terrance D. Hohner, Carolyn B. Kenny||Prana Press||ISBN 978-0-9700868-0-8|
|Contemporary Indian idealism (with special reference to Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan).||Ripusudan Prasad Srivastava||Motilal Banarsidass|
|Cultural contact and fusion: Swami Vivekananda in the West, 1893–96||Satish K. Kapoor||ABS Publications|
|Did Swami Vivekananda Give Up Hinduism?||G. C. Asnani||Sister Nivedita Academy|
|Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||S.V. Bharathi||Discovery Publishing House||ISBN 978-81-8356-023-8|
|Educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||T. S. Avinashilingam||Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya|
|Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda and John Dewey||D. Vijaya Bharathy||ISBN 978-81-7648-202-8|
|Ethical ideas in the world outlook of Swami Vivekananda, Lokamanya B.G. Tilak, and Aurobindo Ghose||Irina Pavlovna Chelysheva||Vostok|
|Great Political Thinker: Swami Vivekananda||S.K. Chaudhary||Sonali Publications||ISBN 978-81-8411-140-8|
|Harmony of religions: the relevance of Swami Vivekananda||Kalarikkal Poulose Aleaz||Punthi-Pustak||ISBN 978-81-85094-59-5|
|Idealistic Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||G. Ranjit Sharma||Atlantic Publishers & Distri|
|Learn Rajayoga from Vivekananda: A Grand Exposition of India's Unique Philosophy and Practice of Yoga, which Swami Vivekananda Made for His American Disciples||Mahendra Kulasrestha||Lotus Press||ISBN 978-81-8382-009-7|
|Life and Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||G. S Banhatti||Atlantic Publishers & Dist||ISBN 978-81-7156-291-6|
|Life of Swami Vivekananda||Vivekananda's Disciples||Vedanta Press||ISBN 978-0-87481-085-1|
|Life of Swami Vivekananda: (12 January 1863 to 4 July 1902); Drama in Engl. Staged on 31 March 1982 at Sri Thyagaraja Hall, Calcutta by Bala Vihar Children, Calcutta||Thevarkal Venketes Waraiyer Narayanaswamy||Central Chinmaya Mission Trust|
|Make me a man, message of Swami Vivekananda||T. S. Avinashilingam||Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya|
|Man Without Frontiers: The Ultimate Concern of Swami Vivekananda||Maria Arokiam Kanaga||Salesian Pontifical University, Faculty of Philosophy|
|Monastic disciples of Swami Vivekananda: inspiring life-stories of some principal disciples||Abjajānanda (Swami.)||Advaita Ashrama||ISBN 978-81-7505-246-8|
|Negotiating Worlds, Re-envisioning Modernity: Swami Vivekananda and Colonial Discourse||Kristen Anne Hardy||University of Manitoba (Canada)||ISBN 978-0-494-22501-1|
|Neo-Hinduism: an exposition of swami Vivekananda's conception of Vedantism (Yoga philosophy)||D. V. Athalye||D.B. Taraporevala sons and co.|
|Notes of some wanderings with the Swami Vivekananda||Sister Nivedita||Udbodhan, Calcutta||N.A.|
|Perspectives on Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Vedanta tradition||M. Sivaramakrishna, Sumita Roy||Sterling Publishers|
|Photographs of Swami Vivekananda, 1886–1901||Vedanta Society of Northern California||Sri Ramakrishna Math||ISBN 978-81-7823-000-9|
|Political Concept of Swami Vivekananda||Sajal Basu||Sujan Publications||ISBN 978-81-85549-02-6|
|Political Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||Kalpana Mohapatra||Northern Book Centre||ISBN 978-81-7211-079-6|
|Prophet disarmed: Vivekananda and Nivedita||Narasingha Prosad Sil||Monash Asia Institute, Centre of South Asian Studies, Monash University||ISBN 978-0-7326-1161-3|
|Quintessence of Yoga Philosophy: An Exploration of Swami Vivekananda's Conception of Practical Vedantism (Neo-Hinduism)||D. V. Athalye||Taraporevala|
|Rediscovering Swami Vivekananda||Amiya Kumara Majumadara||BPR Publishers||ISBN 978-81-908841-9-8|
|Reflections on Swami Vivekananda: Hundred Years After Chicago||M. Sivaramkrishna||South Asia Books||ISBN 978-81-207-1603-2|
|Religious and moral philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||Shail Kumari Singh||Janaki Prakashan|
|Religious Revivalism As Nationalist Discourse: Swami Vivekananda and New Hinduism in Nineteenth-Century Bengal||Shamita Basu||Oxford University Press||ISBN 978-0-19-565371-7|
|Reminiscences of Swami Vivekananda: by his Eastern and Western admirers||Eastern and Western admirers||Advaita Ashrama|
|Revolutionary Ideas of Swami Vivekananda||Rabindra Kumar Das Gupta||Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture|
|Saints of India: Swami Vivekananda||Shiri Ram Bakshi, Sangh Mittra||Criterion|
|Short Life of Swami Vivekananda||Swami Tejasananda||Advaita Ashrama||ISBN 978-81-7505-030-3|
|Social Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||A.R. Mohapatra||Readworthy Publications (P) Limited||ISBN 978-93-80009-01-8|
|Social Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||Santwana Dasgupta||Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture||ISBN 978-81-87332-43-5|
|Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda||Jawaharlal Nehru||Advaita Ashrama (Publication Department)||ISBN 978-81-7505-004-4|
|Swami Vivekanand||B. R. Kishore||Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.||ISBN 978-81-7182-952-1|
|Swami Vivekanand : educational philosopher & his work||S.K. Shukla||Omega Publications||ISBN 978-81-8455-091-7|
|Swami Vivekananda||Amiya Sen||Oxford University Press||ISBN 978-0-19-564565-1|
|Swami Vivekananda||Bābūrāma Śarmā||Diamond Pocket Books|
|Swami Vivekananda||Dr. M. H. Syed, R. K. Singh, P. K. Choudhry||Himalaya Books|
|Swami Vivekananda||K. L. Miglani||Pinnacle Technology||ISBN 978-1-61820-127-0|
|Swami Vivekananda||M. S. Nateson||Vivekananda Publishing House|
|Swami Vivekananda||N.L. Gupta||Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd||ISBN 978-81-261-1538-9|
|Swami Vivekananda||Premacanda||Saraswathi Press|
|Swami Vivekananda||S. Paul||Sterling Publishers Pvt., Limited||ISBN 978-81-7862-440-2|
|Swami Vivekananda||Sachi Sinhal||Prabhat Prakashan||ISBN 978-81-8430-018-5|
|Swami Vivekananda||Satyakam Vidyalankar||Hind Pocket Books|
|Swami Vivekananda||Una Da Manavad||Raghbir Rachnac|
|Swami Vivekananda||Verinder Grover||Deep & Deep Publications||ISBN 978-81-7100-570-3|
|Swami Vivekananda: a forgotten chapter of his life||Benishankar Sharma||Oxford Book & Stationary Co.|
|Swami Vivekananda: A Historical Review||R. C. Majumdar||Advaita Ashrama||ISBN 978-81-7505-202-4|
|Swami Vivekananda: A Man with a Vision||Devika Rangachari||Penguin Books Limited||ISBN 978-81-8475-563-3|
|Swami Vivekananda: A Mental and Spiritual Biography||Rajagopal Chattopadhyaya||Vivekananda Math|
|Swami Vivekananda: A Reassessment||Narasingha Prosad Sil||Susquehanna University Press||ISBN 978-0-945636-97-7|
|Swami Vivekananda: A Sixth Plane Being in San Francisco||Belinda Worthen|
|Swami Vivekananda: a study||D. V. Athalye||Ashish|
|Swami Vivekananda: A Study on Aesthetics||Mohit Chakrabarti||Atlantic Publishers & Distri|
|Swami Vivekananda : An Iconoclastic Ascetic||Ajeet Jawed||Ane Books India||ISBN 978-81-8052-195-9|
|Swami Vivekananda & Success of Students||A. R. K. Sarma||Sri Sarada Book House|
|Swami Vivekananda and His Times: A Series of Lectures||B. Bhattacharya||NCIC|
|Swami Vivekananda and Indian Nationalism||Subodh Chandra Sen Gupta||Sahitya Samsad|
|Swami Vivekananda and Japan||Medhasananda||ISBN 978-4-931148-43-7|
|Swami Vivekananda and Religious Pluralism||Chacko Puthenpurackal||Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana|
|Swami Vivekananda and Sri Ramakrishna in Sri Aurobindo's Writings||Sri Aurobindo, K. C. Anand||Sri Aurobindo Society||ISBN 978-81-7060-208-8|
|Swami Vivekananda and the emergence of India through spiritual culture||Sarvasthananda (Swami.)||Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama|
|Swami Vivekananda and the Future of India||Ranganathananda (Swami.)||Ramakrishna Mission, Institute of Culture|
|Swami Vivekananda and the Indian quest for socialism||Arun Kumar Biswas||Firma KLM|
|Swami Vivekananda and the Indian Renaissance||Telliyavaram Mahadevan Ponnambalam Mahadevan||Sri Ramakrishna Mission, Vidyalaya Teachers College|
|Swami Vivekananda: and the Modern World||Pranab Bandyopadhyay||United Writers||ISBN 978-81-85328-12-6|
|Swami Vivekananda and the modernisation of Hinduism||William Radice||Oxford University Press||ISBN 978-0-19-565093-8|
|Swami Vivekananda and the World of Youth||Nabaniharan Mukhopadhyay||Akhil Bharat Vivekananda Yuva Mahamandal|
|Swami Vivekananda: Awakener of Modern India||R. Ramakrishnan||Sri Ramakrishna Math|
|Swami Vivekananda centenary memorial volume||Ramesh Chandra Majumdar||Swami Vivekananda Centenary|
|Swami Vivekananda's Concept of Service||Swami Swahananda||Sri Ramakrishna Math||ISBN 978-81-7120-900-2|
|Swami Vivekananda: Education Of Love||Mohit Chakrabarti||Kanishka Publishers||ISBN 978-81-7391-822-3|
|Swami Vivekananda: Epoch-maker Spiritual Leader||Swami Jitatmananda||Shri Ramakrishna Ashrama|
|Swami Vivekananda: Excellence In Education||Mohit Chakrabarti||Gyan Publishing House||ISBN 978-81-7835-479-8|
|Swami Vivekananda: His Dynamic Vision||Harbans Lal Agnihotri||Aman Prakashan||ISBN 978-81-900402-2-8|
|Swami Vivekananda: his global vision||Santinath Chattopadhyay||Punthi Pustak||ISBN 978-81-86791-29-5|
|Swami Vivekananda, His Human Books||Jung Bahadur Goyal||Falcon Books||ISBN 978-81-900592-0-6|
|Swami Vivekananda: his life & message||Anil Chandra Ghosh||Presidency Library|
|Swami Vivekananda, his life and mission||Ranganathananda (Swami.)||Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture|
|Swami Vivekananda, His Reconstruction of Hinduism as a Universal Religion||P. M. Thomas||McMaster University|
|Swami Vivekananda: His Sanyasa ...||M. S. Natesan||Vivekananda Publishing House|
|Swami Vivekananda, his second visit to the West: new discoveries||Marie Louise Burke||Advaita Ashrama|
|Swami Vivekananda in America||Nivedita Raghunath Bhide||Vivekananda Kendra||ISBN 978-81-89248-22-2|
|Swami Vivekananda in America: new findings||Asim Chaudhuri||Advaita Ashrama, Publication Dept.||ISBN 978-81-7505-297-0|
|Swami Vivekananda in contemporary Indian news (1893–1902): with Ramakrishna and the Mission||Bimalakumāra Ghosha, Lakshmi Kanta Boral||Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture||ISBN 978-81-85843-89-6|
|Swami Vivekananda in Chicago: new findings||Asim Chaudhuri||Advaita Ashrama||ISBN 978-81-7505-211-6|
|Swami Vivekananda in India: A Corrective Biography||Chattopadhyay Rajagopal||Motilal Banarsidass Publ.||ISBN 978-81-208-1586-5|
|Swami Vivekananda: India's Emissary to the West||Swami Ranganathananda||Vivekananda Kendra Prakashan Trust|
|Swami Vivekananda: insan-i-kamal : revisioning||Som P. Ranchan||Indian Publishers Distributors||ISBN 978-81-7341-053-6|
|Swami Vivekananda in San Francisco||Ashokananda (Swami.)||Vedanta Society of Northern California|
|Swami Vivekananda in the West||Rajagopal Chattopadhyaya||The Author|
|Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries (six volumes)||Sister Gargi||Advaita Ashrama, Kolkata|
|Swami Vivekananda: Messiah of Resurgent India||Pranaba Ranjan Bhuyan||Atlantic Publishers & Dist||ISBN 978-81-269-0234-7|
|Swami Vivekananda on Education||Śaṅkara Abhyaṅkara||Aditya Pratishthan||ISBN 978-81-86879-05-4|
|Swami Vivekananda on India and Her Problems||Nirvedananda, Swami, comp||Advaita Ashrama|
|Swami Vivekananda on Indian philosophy and literature||Rabindra Kumar Dasgupta||Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture||ISBN 978-81-85843-81-0|
|Swami Vivekananda, patriot-prophet: a study||Bhūpendranātha Datta||Nababharat Publishers|
|Swami Vivekananda: Pioneer in Social Revolution||Vidyotma Singh||Vista International Publishing House||ISBN 978-81-89942-13-7|
|Swami Vivekananda: literary biography||Carebanu Cooper|
|Swami Vivekananda, the educator||V. Sukumaran Nair||Facet Books International||ISBN 978-0-932377-10-4|
|Swami Vivekananda, the known philosopher, the unknown poet||Radhika Nagrath||Meteor Books||ISBN 978-81-88248-05-6|
|Swami Vivekananda: The Living Vedanta||Chaturvedi Badrinath||Penguin Books India||ISBN 978-0-14-306209-7|
|Swami Vivekananda: the man and his mission||Sanat Kumar Rai Chaudhuri||Scientific Book Agency|
|Swami Vivekananda, the prophet of Vedantic socialism||Vijendra Kasturi Ranga Varadaraja Rao||Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India|
|Swami Vivekananda: Vibrant Humanist||Mohit Chakrabarti||Kanishka Publishers||ISBN 978-81-7391-420-1|
|Swami Vivekananda Vijnanagita: The Wisdom Song of Vivekananda||Babaji Bob Kindler||Srv Assoc||ISBN 978-1-891893-09-4|
|Swami Vivekananda: Visionary Of Truth||Mohit Chakraborty||Abhijeet Publications||ISBN 978-93-80031-45-3|
|Swâmi Vivekânanda's contribution to the present age||Satprakashananda (Swami.)||Vedanta Society of St. Louis||ISBN 978-0-916356-58-3|
|Swami Vivekananda's ideas on history: with special reference to Indian history and culture||Tangsal Narayana Vasudeva Rao, Indian Council of Historical Research||Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Institute of Vivekananda Studies|
|Swami Vivekananda's legacy of service: a study of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission||Gwilym Beckerlegge||Oxford University Press||ISBN 978-0-19-567388-3|
|Swami Vivekananda's neo-Vedānta||Rabindra Kumar Dasgupta||Asiatic Society|
|Swami Vivekananda's Understanding of Religious Pluralism: A Theological Assessment from a Catholic View Represented by Joseph Neuner||Sebastian Panjikaran||Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, Facultas Theologiae|
|Swami Vivekananda's Winning Formulas to Become Successful Managers||A. R. K. Sarma||Sri Sarada Book House|
|Teaching of Swami Vivekananda||Edgar Wesley Thompson||M.E. Publishing House|
|The cyclonic Swami: Vivekananda in the West||Sukalyan Sengupta, Makarand R. Paranjape||Samvad India Foundation, in association with Center for Indic Studies, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth||ISBN 978-81-901318-2-7|
|The concept of man according to Swami Vivekananda||Thaddeus J. Kunnumpurath||Pontificia Studiorum Universitas a S. Thoma Aq. in Urbe|
|The Hermeneutics of Religious Syncretism: Swami Vivekananda's Practical Vedanta||Thomas L. Bryson||University of Chicago, The Divinity School|
|The Immortal Philosopher of India Swami Vivekananda||Bhawan Singh Rana and Mīnā Agravāla Meena Agrawal||Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.||ISBN 978-81-288-1001-5|
|The life of Swami Vivekananda, by his eastern and western disciples||Gambhirananda (Swami.)||Advaita Ashrama|
|The Master as I Saw Him||Sister Nivedita||Longmans, Green & Co.,||N.A.|
|The Message of Swami Vivekananda||Karan Singh (Sadr-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir)||Swami Vivekananda Centenary Celebration and Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee, Publication Department|
|The Message of Swami Vivekananda: To the Modern World||K. S. Ramaswami Sastri||Ramakrishna Math|
|The Mind of Swami Vivekananda: An Anthology and a Study||Gautam Sen||Jaico Publishing House||ISBN 978-81-7224-212-1|
|The Monk As Man: The Unknown Life of Swami Vivekananda||1933– Samkara||Penguin Books India||ISBN 978-0-14-310119-2|
|The Nationalistic and Religious Lectures of Swami Vivekananda||Tapasyananda (Swami.)||Advaita Ashrama|
|The Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda: Chicago Address Centenary Volume : Homage from Visva-Bharati||Pradip Kumar Sengupta||Progressive Publishers|
|The political philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||A. V. Rathna Reddy||Sterling|
|The Religious and Political Thought of Swami Vivekananda||Aron Harilela||University of Hull|
|The social philosophy of Swami Vivekananda: its relevance to modern India||Abraham Stephen||Indian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge||ISBN 978-81-7214-843-0|
|The Socio-Political Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||Bhaiya Subhash Chandra Prasad||Universal-Publishers||ISBN 978-1-58112-075-2|
|The social and political ideas of Swami Vivekananda||S. S. Mital||Metropolitan|
|The Swami Vivekananda: A Study||Mano Mohan Ganguly||Contemporary Publishers|
|The universal symphony of Swami Vivekananda||Ranganathananda (Swami.)|
|The Vedantic Synthesis of Swami Vivekananda||Andrew Avison Ross||University of Canterbury|
|The Teachings of Swami Vivekananda||Avyaktananda (Swami.)||Vedanta Movement|
|The Vedānta of Swami Vivekananda||B. Prasannakumary||Writers Workshop Publication||ISBN 978-81-7595-307-9|
|The Vedanta of Swami Vivekananda||Suhas Ranjan Ray||Sristi Prakashan|
|Vivekananda||Gajanan Khergamker||Jaico Publishing House||ISBN 978-81-7992-171-5|
|Vivekananda: A Biography||Swami Nikhilananda|
|Vivekenanda: a comprehensive study||Jyotir Maya Nanda (Swami)||Swami Jyotirmayananda||ISBN 978-81-85304-66-3|
|Vivekananda and Indian renaissance||B. K. Ahluwalia, Shashi Ahluwalia||Associated Pub. Co.|
|Vivekananda: his gospel of man-making with a garland of tributes and a chronicle of his life and times, with pictures||Jyotir Maya Nanda (Swami)||Swami Jyotirmayananda||ISBN 978-81-85304-66-3|
|Vivekananda: World Teacher||Swami Adiswarananda||ISBN 978-1-59473-210-2|
|Vivekananda, the prophet of human emancipation: a study on the social philosophy of Swami Vivekananda||Santwana Dasgupta||Bijaya Dasgupta|
|Vivekananda, the warrior saint: a biographical study||Haṃsrāja Rahabara||Farsight Publishers & Distributors|
|Vivekananda: The Yogas and Other Works||Swami Hikhilananda||Ramakrishna Vivekanada Center||ISBN 978-0-911206-04-3|
|Vivekananda's approach to social work||Indira Patel||Sri Ramakrishna Math|
|Vivekananda's influence on Subhas||Nanda Mookerjee||Jayasree Prakashan|
|Vivekananda's message to the youth||Vijendra Kasturi Ranga Varadaraja Rao, T. S. Avinashilingam||Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan|
|Vivekananda Reader||Swami Narasimhananda (edited)||Advaita Ashrama||ISBN 978-81-7505-364-9|
|Wandering Monk: Permanent Exhibition at Kanyakumari on Swami Vivekananda as a Parivrajaka||M. Lakshmi Kumari||Vivekananda Kendra|
|Western women in the footsteps of Swami Vivekananda||Atmaprana (Pravrajika.)||Ramakrishna Sarada Mission|
|Wisdom of Vivekanand||Sachin Sinhal||Prabhat Prakashan||ISBN 978-81-8430-062-8|
|What Religion Is in the Words of Swami Vivekananda||John Yale||Kessinger Publishing||ISBN 978-1-4254-8880-2|
- Bharathi, K. S. (1998). Encyclopaedia of Eminent Thinkers: The political thought of Vivekananda. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-709-0.
- Chaube, Sarayu Prasad (2005). Recent Philosophies On Education On India. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-216-1.
- Vivekananda, Swami (2006). The Indispensable Vivekananda: An Anthology for Our Times. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-7824-130-2. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Mohapatra, Amulya Ranjan (2009). Swaraj - Thoughts of Gandhi, Tilak, Aurobindo, Raja Rammohun Roy, Tagore & Vivekananda. Readworthy. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-81-89973-82-7.
- Piazza, Paul (1978). Christopher Isherwood: Myth and Anti-Myth. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51358-6.
- Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal (1999). Swami Vivekananda in India: A Corrective Biography. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1586-5.
- Dutt, Kartik Chandra (1999). Who's who of Indian Writers, 1999: A-M. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0873-5.
- ^Chaube 2005, p. 52
- ^Vivekananda 2006, p. 11
- ^Mohapatra 2009, p. 14
- ^Piazza 1978, p. 59
- ^ abChattopadhyaya 1999, p. 314
- ^Chattopadhyaya 1999, p. 299
- ^ abChattopadhyaya 1999, p. 326
- ^Dutt 1999, p. 121
- ^Chattopadhyaya 1999, p. 316
- ^ ab"Vivekananda Library online". vivekananda.net. Retrieved 12 December 2012.